The Quran differentiates Polytheism

Chapter 25 of the Quran, titled “The Differentiator”, begins with the denunciation of polytheism:

{1 Exalted is He who has sent the Differentiator down to His servant so that it may be a warning to all people.  2 It is He who has control over the heavens and earth and has no offspring––no one shares control with Him––and who created all things and made them to an exact measure.  3Yet the disbelievers take as their gods things beneath Him that create nothing, and are themselves created, that can neither harm nor help themselves, and have no control over death, life, or resurrection.}  

The following can be inferred from these verses:

1) Allah denounced polytheism by referring to His oneness in lordship over the heavens and the earth. This shows the importance of affirming the oneness of His Lordship in the establishment of tawhid against polytheism, thereby refuting the Wahabi creed which debases the importance of it.

2) Allah rejects any association of offspring and partners in control with Him. This clearly shows that the polytheist’s ascribed offspring’s and partners to Allah in the control of the heavens and the earth. This is a explicit evidence of shirk in Lordship they committed.

As per the Quranic commentary called “Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs”, we see the explanation for this verse:

(He unto Whom belongeth the Sovereignty) the storehouses (of the heavens) rain (and the earth) vegetation. (He hath chosen no son) as claimed by the Jews and Christians (nor hath He any partner in the sovereignty) as claimed by the Arab idolaters. (He hath created everything) that which they worship and that which they do not worship (and hath meted out for it a measure) their lifespan, provision and works are all in a specific measure; it is also said that this means: He decreed for each male a female.

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Another verse of the Qur’an similarly says the same:  “And say, “Praise to Allah , who has not taken a son and has had no partner in [His] dominion and has no [need of a] protector out of weakness; and glorify Him with [great] glorification.” [Quran 17:111]

3) Allah uses the word “illaah” in context to Lordship. This refutes the distortion propagated by the Wahabist sect that “illaah” is not meant with the meaning of Lordship. Muhammed Ibn Abdul Wahab falsely claimed that “illaah” was meant only with the meaning of an object that is sought.

4)  Allah speaks on idols they worshipped in terms of control over creation, harm benefit, death, life and resurrection; which are all issues related to attributes of lordship. This proves that oneness in Allah’s lordship is the focus of attention in opposing polytheism. It would be pointless to mention these matters if the polytheists already ascribed all of these powers solely to Allah.

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