Wahhabism in light of Shafi, Maliki, Hanafi schools of Sunni Islam

Selected commentaries from Muhammed bin Abdul Hadi al-Sindhi (d. 1138H)

Muhammed bin Abdul Hadi al-Sindhi (d. 1138H) also known as Nur-ud Din al-Sindhi, was an important Hanafi scholar from Sindh who settled in Medina. He has written commentaries to hadith works including Sunan Ibn Majah, Sunan Abu Dawud, Sunan Nasai, Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim and Musnad Ahmed among others. Among his students is Muhammed Hayyat al-Sindhi al-Hanafi (d. 1163H) who in turn is known to be one of the teachers of Ibn Abdul Wahhab an-Najdi (d. 1206H).

Below are selected quotes taken from Nur-ud Din al-Sindhi’s commentary on Sunan Ibn Majah and Sunan Nasai.

1) There was nothing besides Allah before creating His creation

بَلِ الْمُرَادُ لَيْسَ مَعَهُ شَيْءٌ وَيَدُلُّ عَلَيْهِ رِوَايَةُ كَانَ فِي عَمًى بِالْقَصْرِ فَإِنَّ الْعَمَى بِالْقَصْرِ مُفَسَّرٌ بِهِ قَالَ التِّرْمِذِيُّ قَالَ: يُرِيدُ الْعَمَاءَ أَيْ لَيْسَ مَعَهُ شَيْءٌ وَعَلَى هَذَا كُلِّهِ وَفِي قَوْلِهِ كَانَ فِي عَمَاءٍ بِمَعْنَى أَنَّهُ كَانَ مَعَ عَدَمِ شَيْءٍ آخَرَ

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-243

2) Allah is not in a place

ثُمَّ اللَّهُ فَوْقَ ذَلِكَ تَصْوِيرٌ لِعَظَمَتِهِ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى وَفَوْقِيَّتُهُ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ بِالْعُلُوِّ وَالْعَظَمَةِ وَالْحُكْمِ لَا الْحُلُولِ وَالْمَكَانِ.

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-259

Rough Translation: “Allah is above by description of Greatness, Almighty and Exaltedness and He is above the Throne by Highness, Greatness and Judgement and not by hulul (indwelling/occupying) and place.”

3) Tawil of the hadith on Allah drawing near to His servants

In commentary to the below narration:

It was narrated from Abu Dharr that : the Messenger of Allah (saas) said: “Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, said: ‘Whoever does one good deed will have (the reward of) ten like it and more, and whoever does a bad deed will have one like it, or I will forgive him. Whoever draws near to Me a hand span, I draw near to him an arm’s length; whoever comes to Me a forearm’s length, I draw near him an arm’s length; whoever comes to Me walking, I come to him in a hurry. Whoever meets Me with an earthful of sins, but does not associate anything in worship with Me, I will meet it (i.e., his sins) with forgiveness equal to that.'”

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-4552

وَفِي النِّهَايَةِ الْمُرَادُ بِقُرْبِ الْعَبْدِ مِنَ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى الْقُرْبُ بِالذِّكْرِ وَالْعَمَلِ الصَّالِحِ لَا قُرْبُ الذَّاتِ وَالْمَكَانِ؛ لِأَنَّ ذَلِكَ مِنْ صِفَاتِ الْأَجْسَامِ وَاللَّهُ تَعَالَى عَنْ ذَلِكَ مُتَقَدِّسٌ، وَالْمُرَادُ بِقُرْبِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى مِنَ الْعَبْدِ قُرْبُ نِعَمِهِ وَأَلْطَافِهِ مِنْهُ وَبِرِّهِ وَإِحْسَانِهِ إِلَيْهِ وَتَرَادُفُ مِنَنِهِ وَفَيْضُ مَوَاهِبِهِ عَلَيْهِ

Translation: “…the meaning of the servant drawing near to Allah Ta’ala is by remembrance and righteous deeds and not nearness by his essence and place as that is the attribute of body and Allah Ta’ala is free from it. The meaning of Allah Ta’ala drawing near to His slave is by nearness of His Grace, Kindness, Righteousness, Beneficence to him….”

4) Tawfidh and Tawil of Nuzul of Allah

قَوْلُهُ: (يَنْزِلُ رَبُّنَا) حَقِيقَةُ النُّزُولِ تُفَوَّضُ إِلَى عِلْمِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى نَعَمِ الْقَدْرُ الْمَقْصُودُ بِالْإِفْهَامِ يَعْرِفُهُ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ وَهُوَ أَنَّ ذَلِكَ الْوَقْتَ قُرْبُ الرَّحْمَةِ إِلَى الْعِبَادِ فَلَا يَنْبَغِي لَهُمْ إِضَاعَتُهُ بِالْغَفْلَةِ

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-1653

Rough Translation: “The saying:(Our Lord descends) the reality of descent is relegated to the knowledge of Allah Ta’ala (however) the intended understanding (of the hadith) which everyone knows is that at that time (i.e., when one third of the night remains) the Mercy (of Allah Ta’ala) is near to His worshiper, and they should not miss it due to negligence”.

5) Tawil and Tawfidh of Dhahak

قَوْلُهُ (ضَحِكَ) كَفَرِحَ رَبُّنَا بِالرَّفْعِ فَاعِلُ ضَحِكَ قِيلَ الضَّحِكُ مِنَ اللَّهِ الرِّضَا وَإِرَادَةُ الْخَيْرِ وَقِيلَ بَسْطُ الرَّحْمَةِ بِالْإِقْبَالِ وَبِالْإِحْسَانِ أَوْ بِمَعْنَى أَمَرَ مَلَائِكَتَهُ بِالضَّحِكِ وَأَذِنَ لَهُمْ فِيهِ كَمَا يُقَالُ السُّلْطَانُ قَتَلَهُ إِذَا أَمَرَ بِقَتْلِهِ قَالَ ابْنُ حِبَّانَ فِي صَحِيحِهِ هُوَ مِنْ نِسْبَةِ الْفِعْلِ إِلَى الْآمِرِ وَهُوَ فِي كَلَامِ الْعَرَبِ كَثِيرٌ قُلْتُ وَالتَّحْقِيقُ مَا أَشَارَ إِلَيْهِ بَعْضُ الْمُحَقِّقِينْ أَنَّ الضَّحِكَ وَأَمْثَالَهُ مِمَّا هُوَ مِنْ قَبِيلِ الِانْفِعَالِ إِذَا نُسِبَ إِلَى اللَّهِ تَعَالَى يُرَادُ بِهِ غَايَتُهُ وَقِيلَ بَلِ الْمُرَادُ بِهِ إِيجَادُ الِانْفِعَالِ فِي الْغَيْرِ فَالْمُرَادُ هَاهُنَا الْإِضْحَاكُ وَمَذْهَبُ أَهْلِ التَّحْقِيقِ أَنَّهُ صِفَةٌ سَمْعِيَّةٌ يَلْزَمُ إِثْبَاتُهَا مَعَ نَفْيِ التَّشْبِيهِ وَكَمَالِ التَّنْزِيهِ كَمَا أَشَارَ إِلَى ذَلِكَ مَالِكٌ وَقَدْ سُئِلَ عَنِ الِاسْتِوَاءِ فَقَالَ الِاسْتِوَاءُ مَعْلُومٌ وَالْكَيْفُ غَيْرُ مَعْلُومٍ وَالْإِيمَانُ بِهِ وَاجِبٌ وَالسُّؤَالُ عَنْهُ بِدْعَةٌ قَوْلُهُ

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-241

Rough translation: “…it is said that Dhahak (lit. laughter) from Allah is His Satisfaction and Good Will, and it is said that it is to extend mercy and kindness, or the meaning is that the angels were order to laugh..similar to the saying that “Sultan has killed him” when the Sultan has ordered to kill him……”

6) Tawil of Yad as Grace

In commentary to the below narration:

It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that: The Prophet said: “The Right Hand of Allah is full and that is never affected by the continuous spending, night and day. In His other Hand, is the Scale, which He raises and lowers. Have you seen what Allah has spent since He created the heavens and the earth? And that has not decreased what is in His Hands in the slightest.'”
he says:
قَوْلُهُ (يَمِينُ اللَّهِ) قِيلَ أُرِيدَ بِالْيَمِينِ النِّعَمَ وَمَعْنَى مَلْأَى كَثِيرَةُ الْعَطَاءِ وَقِيلَ أُرِيدَ بِالْيَمِينِ الْخَزَائِنُ الَّتِي تَتَصَرَّفُ فِيهَا بِالْيَمِينِ

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-266

Translation: “The saying (Right Hand of Allah) It is said what is intended by Right Hand is Grace and the meaning of “full” is a lot of benevolence, and it is said what is intended by Right Hand is treasures….”

7) Tawfidh of Yameen

In commentary to the below narration:

Sa’eed bin Musayyab narrated that Abu Hurairah used to say: “The Messenger of Allah said: Allah will grasp the earth on the Day of Resurrection, and He will roll up the heavens in his Right Hand, then He will say, “I am the Sovereign. Where are the kings of the earth?'”
he says:
(قَوْلُهُ يَقْبِضُ اللَّهُ إِلَخْ) هَذَا الْحَدِيثُ كَالتَّفْسِيرِ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى {وَالْأَرْضُ جَمِيعًا قَبْضَتُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَالسَّماوَاتُ مَطْوِيَّاتٌ بِيَمِينِهِ} [الزمر: 67] وَالْمَقْصُودُ بَيَانُ غَايَةِ عَظَمَتِهِ تَعَالَى وَحَقَارَةِ الْأَفْعَالِ الْعِظَامِ الَّتِي تَتَحَيَّرُ فِيهَا الْأَوْهَامُ بِالْإِضَافَةِ إِلَى كَمَالِ قُدْرَتِهِ وَهَذَا الْمَقْصُودُ حَاصِلٌ بِهَذَا الْكَلَامِ وَإِنْ لَمْ يُعْرَفْ كَيْفِيَّةُ الْقَبْضِ وَحَقِيقَةُ الْيَمِينِ فَالْبَحْثُ عَنْهُمَا خَارِجٌ عَنِ الْقَدْرِ الْمَقْصُودِ إِفْهَامُهُ فَلَا يَنْبَغِي.

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-257

and similar http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-5115

(The saying Allah will grasp, etc) this hadith is the tafsir of the verse {while the earth entirely will be [within] His grip on the Day of Resurrection, and the heavens will be folded in His right hand}[Q39:67], The intended purpose of the statement is the Exaltedness of the Most High……and one does not know the howness of the “grasp” and the reality of “Right Hand” and searching for it (i.e. its meaning and reality) is beyond our ability….”

8) The rejected Bidah

In commentary to the hadith:

Aishah narrated that: The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: “Whoever innovates something in this matter of ours (i.e. Islam) that is not part of it, will have it rejected.”
he says,
الْمَعْنَى عَلَى مَا ذَكَرَهُ الْقَاضِي فِي شَرْحِ الْمَصَابِيحِ مَنْ أَحْدَثَ فِي الْإِسْلَامِ رَأْيًا لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَالسُّنَّةِ سَنَدٌ ظَاهِرٌ أَوْ خَفِيٌّ مَلْفُوظٌ أَوْ مُسْتَنْبَطٌ فَهُوَ رَدٌّ عَلَيْهِ

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-20

Translation: “the meaning of this is what Al Qadhi (al-Baydhawi) said in Sharh Masabih, whoever innovates in Islam an opinion which is not supported from the Kitab or Sunnah either apparent or hidden, pronounced or conceived, than that is rejected”

9) The meaning of “Rightly-Guided Caliphs” include the Imams of Islam

In commentary to the hadith:

Yahya bin Abu Muta’ said: I heard ‘Irbad bin Sariyah say: ‘One day, the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) stood up among us and delivered a deeply moving speech to us that melted our hearts and caused our eyes to overflow with tears. It was said to him: ‘O Messenger of Allah, you have delivered a speech of farewell, so enjoin something upon us.’ He said: ‘I urge you to fear Allah, and to listen and obey, even if (your leader) is an Abyssinian slave. After I am gone, you will see great conflict. I urge you to adhere to my Sunnah and the path of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, and cling stubbornly to it. And beware of newly-invented matters, for every innovation is a going astray.'”
he says ,
قَوْلُهُ: (وَسُنَّةُ الْخُلَفَاءِ إِلَخْ) قِيلَ: هُمُ الْأَرْبَعَةُ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ – وَقِيلَ: بَلْ هُمْ وَمَنْ سَارَ سِيرَتَهُمْ مِنْ أَئِمَّةِ الْإِسْلَامِ الْمُجْتَهِدِينَ فِي الْأَحْكَامِ فَإِنَّهُمْ خُلَفَاءُ الرَّسُولِ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ – فِي إِعْلَاءِ الْحَقِّ وَإِحْيَاءِ الدِّينِ وَإِرْشَادِ الْخَلْقِ إِلَى الصِّرَاطِ الْمُسْتَقِيمِ

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-57

Translation: “The saying (the sunnah of the Caliphs, etc) it is said, they are the (first) four (caliphs) – may Allah be please with them. It is said: however those who walked their path from the Imams of Islam the mujthadeen in rulings, they are also the successors/caliphs of the messenger of Allah – peace be upon him – in upholding the truth, reviving the religion, guiding creation to the straight path.”

10) Innovation which has a basis in the Deen 

In commentary to the hadith quoted above, he says:

قَوْلُهُ: (وَالْأُمُورَ الْمُحْدَثَاتِ) قِيلَ: أُرِيدُ بِهَا مَا لَيْسَ لَهُ أَصْلٌ فِي الدِّينِ وَأَمَّا الْأُمُورُ الْمُوَافِقَةُ لِأُصُولِ الدِّينِ فَغَيْرُ دَاخِلَةٍ فِيهَا وَإِنْ أُحْدِثَتْ بَعْدَهُ ـ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ـ

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-57

Translation: “The saying: (And beware of newly invented matters) It is said: What is intended by this is that matters which has no basis in the deen. As for matters which are approved by the fundamentals of the religion than it is not included in this even if it was brought forth after after the Prophet peace be upon him.”

11) The Ummah will not agree on error

In the commentary to the hadith:

Anas bin Malik said: “I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say: ‘My nation will not unite on misguidance, so if you see them differing, follow the great majority.’”

he says,

قَوْلُهُ: (إِنَّ أُمَّتِي لَا تَجْتَمِعُ عَلَى ضَلَالَةٍ) أَيِ: الْكُفْرِ، أَوِ الْفِسْقِ، أَوِ الْخَطَأِ فِي الِاجْتِهَادِ، وَهَذَا قَبْلَ مَجِيءِ الرِّيحِ قَوْلُهُ: (بِالسَّوَادِ الْأَعْظَمِ) أَيْ: بِالْجَمَاعَةِ الْكَثِيرَةِ فَإِنَّ اتِّفَاقَهُمْ أَقْرَبُ إِلَى الْإِجْمَاعِ، قَالَ السُّيُوطِيُّ فِي تَفْسِيرِ السَّوَادِ الْأَعْظَمِ، أَيْ: جَمَاعَةُ النَّاسِ وَمُعْظَمُهُمُ الَّذِينَ يَجْتَمِعُونَ عَلَى سُلُوكِ الْمَنْهَجِ الْمُسْتَقِيمِ، وَالْحَدِيثُ يَدُلُّ عَلَى أَنَّهُ يَنْبَغِي الْعَمَلُ بِقَوْلِ الْجُمْهُورِ،

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-4704

Translation: “The saying (My nation will not unite on misguidance) that is: Kufr or immorality/disobedience or error in Ijthihad, and this is before the coming of the wind (i.e. end times wind that will cause the death of all believers). The saying: (great majority) that is : majority group, their agreement is closer to the consensus……..”

12) Who are the Blessed Strangers

In commentary to the hadith:

It was narrated from ‘Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:
“Islam began as something strange and will go back to being strange, so glad tidings to the strangers.” It was said: “Who are the strangers?’ He said: “Those who left their tribes.”
he says:
أَيِ: الَّذِينَ يَخْرُجُونَ عَنِ الْأَوْطَانِ لِإِقَامَةِ سُنَنِ الْإِسْلَامِ وَقَدْ جَاءَ عَنْ بَعْضِ السَّلَفِ أَنَّهُمْ أَهْلُ الْحَدِيثِ، وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ.

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-4753

Translation: “That is: Those who go out of the homelands to establish the sunan of Islam. It was narrated from some of the salaf that they are the Ahl al-hadeeth. And Allah knows best.”

The Ahl al-hadeeth referred here are Ahlus Sunnah scholars of the early period and those scholars who continued their schools as opposed to the Mu’tazilite schools. Point is, the “strangers” are not random teenagers with Playstations and Youtubers coming out of nowhere claiming to be “mujahideen”.

13) The prohibition of intentional killing of civilians

In commentary to the hadith:

It was narrated that Ibn ‘Abbas said: “Sa’b bin Jaththamah said: ‘The Prophet (ﷺ) was asked about the polytheists who are attacked at night, and their women and children are killed.’ He said: ‘They are from among them.’”
he says:
 (هُمْ مِنْهُمْ) أَيْ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ فِي جَوَازِ الْقَتْلِ فِي تَلِكَ الْحَالَةِ الْمَسْئُولِ عَنْهَا، وَفِي ذَلِكَ الْقَتْلِ غَيْرِ الْقَصْدِيِّ، وَأَمَّا الْقَصْدِيُّ فَقَدْ نُهِيَ عَنْهُ فَلَا مُعَارَضَةَ بَيْنَ هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ وَحَدِيثِ النَّهْيِ.

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-3435

Translation: “(They are from among them) that is from the Mushrikeen who are permissible to be killed (during war) ……and in that the killing is non-intentional. As for the case when it is intentional than that is forbidden and there is no contradiction between this hadith and the hadith that prohibits (the killing of civilians)”.

And in commentary to the hadith:

It was narrated from Ibn ‘Umar that the Prophet (ﷺ) saw a woman who had been killed on the road, and he forbade killing women and children.

he says,

قَوْلُهُ: (قَتْلِ النِّسَاءِ وَالصَّبِيَّانِ) أَيْ قَصْدًا وَبِلَا ضَرُورَةٍ.

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-3437

Translation: “The Saying: (killing women and children) that is intentionally and unnecessarily.”

I.e., it is forbidden to kill women and children or civilians intentionally and unnecessarily during war.

14) Meaning of the hadith “I have been commanded to fight the people until they say: La ilaha illallah.

In commentary to the hadith:
It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: “I have been commanded to fight the people until they say: La ilaha illallah. If they say it, then their blood and wealth are protected from me, except for a right that is due from it, and their reckoning will be with Allah.”
he says,
ثُمَّ لَا بُدَّ مِنْ حَمْلِ الْحَدِيثِ عَلَى مُشْرِكِي الْعَرَبِ، أَوْ أَنَّهُ كَانَ قَبْلَ شُرُوعِ الْجِزْيَةِ، وَإِلَّا فَالْقِتَالُ كَمَا يَنْتَهِي بِالْإِسْلَامِ يَنْتَهِي بِأَدَاءِ الْجِزْيَةِ فِي حَقِّ غَيْرِ الْعَرَبِ.

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-4677

Translation: “…….it is necessary to understand this hadith as referring to the Arab polytheists or that it was before the initiation of jizyah…..”

In other words, the above hadith was understood by scholars of Islam to be only referring to those Arab polytheists during the time of our Prophet (ﷺ) or a command that was only in practice prior to the command of Jizyah was revealed. However, the neo-jihadi salafis selectively quote this hadith today and misinterpret it as blanket command to kill all non-Muslims until they adopt Islam (note: the hadith does not even say “kill” and instead says “fight”) .

15) Prohibition of insulting Non-Muslims and evil doers while allowing to warn against them

كَمَا تقدم لخُصُوص النَّهْي عَن السب بِغَيْر الْمُنَافِق وَالْكَافِر والمتظاهر بفسق وبدعة وَأما هَؤُلَاءِ فَلَا يحرم ذكرهم بِالشَّرِّ للتحذير عَن طريقهم والإقتداء بآثارهم والتخلق بأخلاقهم

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-522/page-814

Rough translation: “……It is forbidden to insult the hypocrite, kafir, evil-doers, corrupt and people of bidah, however it is not forbidden to remind of their evil and warn against their ways…..”

16) Parents of the Prophet (ﷺ) are saved

مَنْ يَقُولُ بِنَجَاةِ الْوَالِدَيْنِ لَهُمْ ثَلَاثَةُ مَسَالِكَ فِي ذَلِكَ مَسْلَكُ أَنَّهُمَا مَا بَلَغَتْهُمَا الدَّعْوَةُ وَلَا عَذَابَ عَلَى مَنْ لَمْ تَبْلُغْهُ الدَّعْوَةُ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى {وَمَا كُنَّا مُعَذِّبِينَ} [الإسراء: 15] إِلَخْ فَلَعَلَّ مَنْ سَلَكَ هَذَا الْمَسْلَكَ يَقُولُ فِي تَأْوِيلِ الْحَدِيثِ إِنَّ الِاسْتِغْفَارَ فَرْعُ تَصَوُّرِ الذَّنْبِ وَذَلِكَ فِي أَوَانِ التَّكْلِيفِ وَلَا يُعْقَلُ ذَلِكَ فِيمَنْ لَمْ تَبْلُغْهُ الدَّعْوَةُ فَلَا حَاجَةَ إِلَى الِاسْتِغْفَارِ لَهُمْ فَيُمْكِنُ أَنَّهُ مَا شُرِعَ الِاسْتِغْفَارُ إِلَّا لِأَهْلِ الدَّعْوَةِ لَا لِغَيْرِهِمْ وَإِنْ كَانُوا نَاجِينَ وَأَمَّا مَنْ يَقُولُ بِأَنَّهُمَا أُحْيِيَا لَهُ ـ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ـ فَآمَنَا بِهِ فَيَحْمِلُ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ عَلَى أَنَّهُ كَانَ قَبْلَ الْإِخْبَارِ وَأَمَّا مَنْ يَقُولُ بِمَنْعِ الِاسْتِغْفَارِ لَهُمَا قَطْعًا فَلَا حَاجَةَ إِلَى التَّأْوِيلِ فَاتَّضَحَ وَجْهُ الْحَدِيثِ عَلَى جَمِيعِ الْمَسَالِكِ.

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-1908

وَفِي رِوَايَةِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَنَسٍ أَنَّهُ قَالَ لَهُ «إِنَّ أَبِي وَأَبَاكَ فِي النَّارِ» قَالَ السُّيُوطِيُّ وَإِنَّمَا ذَكَرَهَا حَمَّادُ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ عَنْ ثَابِتٍ وَقَدْ خَالَفَهُ مَعْمَرٌ عَنْ ثَابِتٍ فَلَمْ يَذْكُرْهُ وَلَكِنْ قَالَ إِذَا مَرَرْتُ بِقَبْرِ كَافِرٍ فَبَشِّرْهُ بِالنَّارِ وَلَا دَلَالَةَ فِي هَذَا اللَّفْظِ عَلَى حَالِ الْوَالِدِ وَهُوَ أَثْبَتُ فَإِنَّ مَعْمَرًا أَثْبَتُ مِنْ حَمَّادٍ فَإِنَّ حَمَّادًا تُكُلِّمَ فِي حِفْظِهِ وَوَقَعَ فِي أَحَادِيثِهِ مَنَاكِيرُ وَلَمْ يُخَرِّجْ لَهُ الْبُخَارِيُّ وَلَا خَرَّجَ لَهُ مُسْلِمٌ فِي الْأُصُولِ إِلَّا مِنْ رِوَايَتِهِ عَنْ ثَابِتٍ وَأَمَّا مَعْمَرٌ فَلَمْ يُتَكَلَّمْ فِي حِفْظِهِ وَلَا اسْتُنْكِرَ شَيْءٌ مِنْ حَدِيثِهِ وَاتَّفَقَ عَلَى التَّخْرِيجِ لَهُ الشَّيْخَانِ فَكَانَ لَفْظُهُ أَثْبَتُ ثُمَّ وَجَدْنَا الْحَدِيثَ وَرَدَ مِنْ حَدِيثِ سَعْدِ بْنِ أَبِي وَقَّاصٍ بِمِثْلِ لَفْظِ مَعْمَرٍ عَنْ ثَابِتٍ عَنْ أَنَسٍ أَخْرَجَهُ الْبَزَّارُ وَالطَّبَرَانِيُّ وَالْبَيْهَقِيُّ وَكَذَا مِنْ حَدِيثِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ رَوَاهُ ابْنُ مَاجَهْ فَتَعَيَّنَ الِاعْتِمَادُ عَلَى هَذَا اللَّفْظِ وَتَقْدِيمُهُ عَلَى غَيْرِهِ فَعُلِمَ أَنَّ رِوَايَةَ مُسْلِمٍ مِنْ تَصَرُّفِ الرُّوَاةِ بِالْمَعْنَى عَلَى حَسَبِ فَهْمِهِ عَلَى أَنَّهُ لَوْ صَحَّ يُحْمَلُ فِيهِ الْأَبُ عَلَى الْعَمِّ وَلِهَذَا قَالَ السُّيُوطِيُّ فِي حَاشِيَةِ الْكِتَابِ هَذَا أَيْ سُنَنُ ابْنِ مَاجَهْ مِنْ مَحَاسِنِ الْأَجْوِبَةِ أَنَّهُ لَمَا وَجَدَ الْأَعْرَابِيَّ فِي نَفْسِهِ لَاطَفَهُ النَّبِيُّ ـ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ـ وَعَدَلَ إِلَى جَوَابٍ عَامٍّ فِي كُلٍّ مُشْرِكٍ وَلَمْ يَتَعَرَّضْ إِلَى الْجَوَابِ عَنْ وَالِدِهِ ـ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ـ بِنَفْيٍ وَلَا إِثْبَاتٍ وَقَالَ وَلَمْ يُعْرَفْ لِوَالِدِهِ ـ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ـ حَالَةُ شِرْكٍ مَعَ صِغَرِ سِنِّهِ جِدًّا فَإِنَّهُ تُوُفِّيَ وَهُوَ ابْنُ سِتَّ عَشْرَةَ سَنَةً وَقَدْ رُوِيَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى أَحْيَا لِلنَّبِيِّ ـ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ـ وَالِدِيهِ حَتَّى آمَنَا بِهِ وَالَّذِي يَقْطَعُ بِهِ أَنَّهُمَا فِي الْجَنَّةِ وَمِنْ أَقْوَى الْحُجَجِ عَلَى ذَلِكَ أَنَّهُمَا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْفَتْرَةِ وَقَدْ أَطْبَقَ أَئِمَّتُنَا الشَّافِعِيَّةُ وَالْأَشْعَرِيَّةُ عَلَى أَنَّ مَنْ لَمْ تَبْلُغْهُ الدَّعْوَةُ لَا يُعَذَّبُ وَيَدْخُلُ الْجَنَّةَ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى {وَمَا كُنَّا مُعَذِّبِينَ} [الإسراء: 15] الْآيَةَ وَقَالَ الْحَافِظُ ابْنُ حَجَرٍ فِي الْإِصَابَةِ وَرَدَ مِنْ عِدَّةِ طُرُقٍ فِي حَقِّ الشَّيْخِ الْهَرِمِ وَمَنْ مَاتَ فِي الْفَتْرَةِ وَمَنْ وُلِدَ أَكْمَهَ أَعْمَى أَصَمَّ وَمَنْ وُلِدَ مَجْنُونًا أَوْ طَرَأَ عَلَيْهِ الْجُنُونُ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَبْلُغَ وَنَحْوُ ذَلِكَ أَنَّ كُلًّا مِنْهُمْ يَأْتِي بِحُجَّةٍ وَيَقُولُ لَوْ عَقَلْتُ أَوْ ذُكِّرْتُ لَآمَنْتُ فَتُرْفَعُ لَهُمْ نَارٌ وَيُقَالُ ادْخُلُوهَا فَمَنْ دَخَلَهَا كَانَتْ لَهُ بَرْدًا وَسَلَامًا وَمَنِ امْتَنَعَ أُدْخِلَهَا كُرْهًا وَنَحْنُ نَرْجُو أَنْ يَدْخُلَ عَبْدُ الْمُطَّلَبِ وَآلُ بَيْتِهِ فِي جُمْلَةِ مَنْ يَدْخُلُهَا طَائِعًا إِلَّا أَبَا طَالِبٍ اهـ وَكَأَنَّ الْمُصَنِّفَ أَخَذَ التَّرْجَمَةَ مِنْ لَفْظِ حَيْثُمَا مَرَرْتُ بِقَبْرِ مُشْرِكٍ لِأَنَّهُ نَوْعٌ مِنَ الزِّيَارَةِ وَفِيهِ تَأَمُّلٌ وَفِي الزَّوَائِدِ إِسْنَادُ هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ صَحِيحٌ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ.

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-1909

Note: In the above quote highlighted in bold, he mentions the Asharis are “our Imams”.

17) The grandfather of the Prophet (ﷺ) is from Ahlul Fitrah

وَيَكُونُ مَعْنَى الحَدِيث لم ترى الْجنَّة حَتَّى يَجِيء الْوَقْت الَّذِي يرى فِيهِ عبد الْمطلب فَتَرَيْنَهَا حِينَئِذٍ فَتَكُونُ رُؤْيَتُكِ لَهَا مُتَأَخِّرَةً عَنْ رُؤْيَة غَيْرك مَعَ السَّابِقين هَذَا مَدْلُول الحَدِيث على قَوَاعِد أهل السّنة لَا معنى لَهُ غير ذَلِك على قواعدهم وَالذِي سَمِعْتُهُ مِنْ شَيْخِنَا شَيْخِ الْإِسْلَامِ شَرَفِ الدِّينِ الْمُنَاوِيِّ وَقَدْ سُئِلَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ فَقَالَ هُوَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْفَتْرَةِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ تبلغهم الدعْوَة وحكمهم فِي الْمَذْهَب مَعْرُوف انْتهى

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-522/page-793

18) Travel to a place besides the three mosques

In commentary to the hadith:

It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: “Mounts are not saddled for except to (travel to) three Masjids: Al-Masjid Al-Haram, this Masjid of mine, and Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa.”

he says:

لَا تشد الرّحال الخ نفى بِمَعْنى النَّهْي أَو نهى وَشد الرّحال كِنَايَة عَن السّفر وَالْمعْنَى لَا يَنْبَغِي شدّ الرّحال وَالسّفر من بَين الْمَسَاجِد الا إِلَى ثَلَاثَة مَسَاجِد وَأما السّفر للْعلم وزيارة الْعلمَاء والصلحاء وللتجارة وَنَحْو ذَلِك فَغير دَاخل فِي حيّز الْمَنْع وَكَذَا زِيَارَة الْمَسَاجِد الْأُخَر بِلَا سفر كزيارة مَسْجِد قبَاء لأهل الْمَدِينَة غير دَاخل فِي حيّز النَّهْي وَالله تَعَالَى أعلم قَوْله

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-522#page-324

and similar http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-1713

Translation: “….the meaning is do not set out for or travel to a mosque besides the three mosques. As for travel for learning/sciences, visiting of the ulema and righteous(saints), trade and so on does not fall within the prohibition, as well visiting other mosques without the need for travel such as visiting the mosque of Quba by the people of Madina does not fall within the prohibition.”

19) Explanation of hadith of blind man seeking tawassul of the Prophet (ﷺ)

In commentary to the hadith:

It was narrated from ‘Uthman bin Hunaif that a blind man came to the Prophet (ﷺ) and said:
“Pray to Allah to heal me.” He said: “If you wish to store your reward for the Hereafter, that is better, or if you wish, I will supplicate for you.” He said: “Supplicate.” So he told him to perform ablution and do it well, and to pray two Rak’ah, and to say this supplication: “Allahumma inni as’aluka wa atawajjahu ilaika bimuhammadin nabiyyir-rahmah. Ya Muhammadu inni qad tawajjahtu bika ila rabbi fi hajati hadhihi lituqda. Allahumma fashaffi’hu fiya (O Allah, I ask of You and I turn my face towards You by virtue of the intercession of Muhammad the Prophet of mercy. O Muhammad, I have turned to my Lord by virtue of your intercession concerning this need of mine so that it may be met. O Allah, accept his intercession concerning me)”.
he says,
قُلْتُ: كَأَنَّهُ أَشَارَ بَذْلِكَ إِلَى أَنَّ تَعْلِيمَ الدُّعَاءِ وَالتَّشْفِيعَ بِهِ بِمَنْزِلَةِ دُعَائِهِ

Translation: “I say: It is as if the teaching of the supplication and intercession is akin to his supplication”

i.e. the blind man sought the dua of the Prophet (ﷺ) and in return the blind man was taught the dua which he would supplicate for himself. Therefore this supplication is equivalent to obtaining the supplication of the Prophet (ﷺ)

and later says:

(يَا مُحَمَّدُ) فِيهِ جَوَازُ النِّدَاءِ بِاسْمِهِ فِي مَقَامِ التَّشَفُّعِ بِهِ لِأَنَّ الْمَقَامَ يُؤَدِّي مِنَ التَّعْظِيمِ مَا يُؤَدِّي بِهِ ذِكْرُهُ بِالْقَلْبِ وَفِيهِ أَنَّ إِحْضَارَهُ فِي أَثْنَاءِ الدُّعَاءِ وَالْخِطَابِ مَعَهُ فِيهِ جَائِزٌ كَإِحْضَارِهِ فِي أَثْنَاءِ الصَّلَاةِ وَالْخِطَابِ فِيهِ قَوْلُهُ: (شَفِّعْهُ) بِالتَّشْدِيدِ أَيِ اقْبَلْ شَفَاعَتَهُ فِي حَقِّي وَفِيهِ أَنَّ التَّشْفِيعَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ شَفَاعَتِهِ

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-1678

Translation: “(Ya Muhammed) in which it is permissible to call his name at the occasion of intercession as it leads to admiration and remembrance in his heart …..”

In other words it is not disrespectful to call upon the Prophet “O Muhammed” during dua of tawassul and intercession and it is instead a sense of exaltation of the Prophet (ﷺ).

20) Seeking Tabaruk from the relics of righteous people

In commentary to the hadith:

It was narrated from Muhammad bin Sirin that Umm ‘Atiyyah Al-Ansariyyah said:
“The Messenger of Allah entered upon us when his daughter died, and said: ‘Wash her three times or five, or more if you think (that is needed), with water and lote leaves, and put some camphor in it the last time, and when you have finished call me.’ When we finished we called him and he gave us his waist-wrap, and said: ‘Shroud her in it.“‘
he says:
وَإِنَّمَا أَمر بذلك تبركا وَفِيه دلَالَة على أَن التَّبَرُّك بأثار أهل الصّلاح مَشْرُوع

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-522/page-793

Translation: “…he instructed so for Tabaruk (blessings) and in this is proof that Tabaruk from the athar (relics) of the righteous people is authorized”

And in commentary to the hadith:

It was narrated that Talq bin ‘Ali said:
“We went out as a delegation to the Prophet (ﷺ); we gave him our oath of allegiance and prayed with him. We told him that in our land there was a church that belonged to us. We asked him to give us the leftovers of his purification (Wudu’ water). So he called for water, performed Wudu’ and rinsed out his mouth, then he poured it into a vessel and said to us: ‘Leave, and when you return to your land, demolish your church, and sprinkle this water on that place, and take it as a Masjid.’ We said: ‘Our land is far away and it is very hot; the water is far away and it is very hot; the water will dry up.’ He said: ‘Add more water to it, for that will only make it better.’ So we left and when we came to our land we demolished our church, then we sprinkled the water on that place and took it as a Masjid, and we called the Adhan in it. The monk was a man from Tayy’, and when he heard the Adhan, he said: ‘It is a true call.’ Then he headed toward one of the hills and we never saw him again.”

he says:

أَي رشوا وَفِيه من التَّبَرُّك بآثار الصَّالِحين مَالا يخفى

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-522/page-325

Translation: “That is they sprinkled, and in this there is (instance of seeking) tabaruk from the relics of the righteous people which is no secret”

21) Seeking Tabaruk by praying near relics of the righteous

In commentary to the hadith:

It was narrated from Yazid bin Abu ‘Ubaid that Salamah bin Al-Akwa’ used to offer the Duha prayer, and he would come to the pillar that was near the Mushaf. I said to him:
“Why do you not pray over there?” And I pointed to some corner of the mosque. He said: “I saw the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) seeking out this place.”

he says:

فَعُلِمَ مِنْ هَذَا أَنَّ الْإِكْثَارَ مِنَ الصَّلَاةِ فِي مَوْضِعٍ لَا بَأْسَ بِهِ سِيَّمَا إِذَا كَانَ لِلتَّبَرُّكِ بِآثَارِ الصَّالِحِينَ وَإِنَّمَا النَّهْيُ عَنْهُ لِلتَّخْصِيصِ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ.

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-1740

Translation: “It is known from this that the there is nothing wrong with multiplication of prayer in a certain place especially if for tabaruk by the relics of the righteous….”

22) Seeking Tabaruk by kissing the hand

In commentary to the hadith:

It was narrated that Ibn Umar said: “We kissed the hand of the Prophet(ﷺ).”

he says:

وَبِالْجُمْلَةِ فَتَقْبِيلُ يَدِ مَنْ يُتَبَرَّكُ بِهِ جَائِزٌ

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-4412

Translation: “In general, the kissing of the hand for seeking tabaruk is permissible”

23) Prophets are alive in their graves

In commentary to the hadith:

It was narrated that Shaddad bin Aws said:
“The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: ‘The best of your days is Friday. On it Adam was created, on it the Trumpet will be blown, on it all creatures will swoon. So send a great deal of peace and blessings upon me on that day, for your peace and blessings will be presented to me.’ A man said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, how will our peace and blessings be shown to you when you will have disintegrated?’ He said: ‘Allah has forbidden the earth to consume the bodies of the Prophets.’”

he says:

وَالْجَوَابُ بِقَوْلِهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – إِنَّ اللَّهَ حَرَّمَ إِلَخْ كِنَايَةٌ عَنْ كَوْنِ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ أَحْيَاءَ فِي قُبُورِهِمْ أَوْ بَيَانٌ لِمَا هُوَ خَرْقٌ لِلْعَادَةِ الْمُسْتَمِرَّةِ بِطَرِيقِ التَّمْثِيلِ أَيْ لِيَجْعَلُوهُ مَقِيسًا عَلَيْهِ لِلْعَرْضِ بَعْدَ الْمَوْتِ الَّذِي هُوَ خِلَافُ الْعَادَةِ الْمُسْتَمِرَّةِ وَيُحْتَمَلُ أَنَّ الْمَانِعَ مِنَ الْعَرْضِ عِنْدَهُمْ فِنَاءُ الْبَدَنِ لَا مُجَرَّدُ الْمَوْتِ وَمُفَارَقَةُ الرُّوحِ الْبَدَنَ لِجَوَازِ عَوْدِ الرُّوحِ إِلَى الْبَدَنِ مَا دَامَ سَالِمًا عَنِ التَّغْيِيرِ الْكَثِيرِ فَأَشَارَ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – إِلَى بَقَاءِ بَدَنِ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ عَلَيْهِمُ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ وَهَذَا هُوَ الظَّاهِرُ لِلسُّؤَالِ وَالْجَوَابِ

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-1322

Translation: “The answer of the Prophet (ﷺ) that “Allah has forbidden” is a metaphor for the fact that the Prophets are alive in their graves……..”

24) Ziyarah of the Prophet (ﷺ) is one of the best acts of worship

In commentary to the hadith:

It was narrated from Ibn ‘Umar that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: ‘Whoever among you can die in Al-Madinah, let him do so, for I will bear witness in favor of those who die there.”

he says:

قَالَ الدَّمِيرِيُّ: فَائِدَةُ زِيَارَةِ النَّبِيِّ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – مِنْ أَفْضَلِ الطَّاعَاتِ وَأَعْظَمِ الْقُرُبَاتِ؛ لِقَوْلِهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ -: «مَنْ زَارَ قَبْرِي وَجَبَتْ لَهُ شَفَاعَتِي» رَوَاهُ الدَّارَقُطْنِيُّ وَغَيْرُهُ وَصَحَّحَهُ عَبْدُ الْحَقِّ وَلِقَوْلِهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ -: «مَنْ جَاءَنِي زَائِرًا لَا تَحْمِلُهُ حَاجَةٌ إِلَّا زِيَارَتِي، كَانَ حَقًّا عَلَيَّ أَنْ أَكُونَ لَهُ شَفِيعًا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ» رَوَاهُ الْجَمَاعَةُ مِنْهُمُ الْحَافِظُ أَبُو عَلِيِّ بْنُ السَّكَنِ فِي كِتَابِهِ الْمُسَمَّى بِالسُّنَنِ الصِّحَاحِ، فَهَذَانِ إِمَامَانِ صَحَّحَا هَذَيْنِ الْحَدِيثَيْنِ وَقَوْلُهُمَا أَوْلَى مِنْ قَوْلِ مَنْ طَعَنَ فِي ذَلِكَ.

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-3750

Translation: “Al Damiri said: The benefit of visiting the Prophet (ﷺ) is that it is one of the best acts of worship and the greatest in pious deeds…..”

25) Meaning of the narration “do not make your houses into graves”

In commentary to the hadith:

It was narrated that Ibn ‘Umar said: “The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: ‘Do not make your houses into graves.’”

he says,

قَوْلُهُ: (لَا تَتَّخِذُوا بُيُوتَكُمْ قُبُورًا) أَيْ كَالْقَبْرِ فِي الْخُلُوِّ عَنِ الصَّلَاةِ أَوْ لَا تَكُونُوا كَالْأَمْوَاتِ فِيهَا غَيْرَ ذَاكِرِينَ فَتَكُونَ الْبُيُوتُ لَكُمْ كَالْقُبُورِ.

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-9810/page-1667

Translation: “The saying (do not make your houses into graves) i.e. akin to a grave by the absence of the prayer or do not be like the the dead in them without the remembrance (of Allah) such that your houses are like graves.”

26) On taking mosques besides the graves of righteous

In commentary to the hadith

It was narrated that Ibn Abbas said:
“The Messenger of Allah cursed women who visit graves, and those who take them as Masjid and put lamps on them.”

he says,

واتخاذ الْمَسْجِد عَلَيْهَا قبل أَن يَجْعَلهَا قبْلَة يسْجد إِلَيْهَا كالوثن وَأما من اتخذ مَسْجِدا فِي جوَار صَالح أَو صلى فِي مَقْبرَة من غير قصد التَّوَجُّه نَحوه فَلَا حرج فِيهِ وَقَالَ جمَاعَة بِالْكَرَاهَةِ مُطلقًا والسرج جمع سراج وَالنَّهْي عَنهُ لِأَنَّهُ تَضْييع مَال بِلَا نفع وَيُشبه تَعْظِيم الْقُبُور كاتخاذها مَسَاجِد قَوْله لِأَن تجْلِس بِفَتْح اللَّام مُبْتَدأ خَبره خير

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-522/page-856

Translation: “”take them as Masjid” by taking (the grave) as a Qiblah and prostrating to it like an idol, but as for the person who has taken a masjid near the righteous person or prayed in a cemetary without the intention of facing it then there is nothing wrong with it…..”

And in commentary to the hadith:

‘Ubaidullah bin ‘Abdullah reported that ‘Aishah and Ibn ‘Abbas said:
“When the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) was on his deathbed, he had a Khamisah over his face. When his temperature rose, he would uncover his face. When his temperature rose, he would uncover his face. While he was like that he said: ‘May Allah curse the Jews and Christians, for they took the graves of their Prophets as places of worship.'”

he says:

أَي فِي تِلْكَ الْحَالة وَمرَاده بذلك أَن يحذر أمته أَن يصنعوا بقبره مَا صنع الْيَهُود وَالنَّصَارَى بقبور أَنْبِيَائهمْ من اتخاذهم تِلْكَ الْقُبُور مَسَاجِد أما بِالسُّجُود إِلَيْهَا تَعْظِيمًا لَهَا أَو بجعلها قبْلَة يتوجهون فِي الصَّلَاة نَحْوهَا قيل وَمُجَرَّد اتِّخَاذ مَسْجِد فِي جوَار صَالح تبركا غير مَمْنُوع

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-522/page-328

Translation:”….it is intended to warn his nation against doing to his grave what the Jews and Christians did to the graves of their Prophets by taking their graves as masajid and prostrating towards it as a veneration or by taking it as a Qiblah to which they face for prayer. It is said: and just taking a masjid near the righteous person for tabaruk is not prohibited”

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Imam Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr (d. 423H) on the meaning of Bidah

The Maliki scholar Al Hafiz Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr (d.423H) in his work الاستذكار writes:

وَأَمَّا قَوْلُ عُمَرَ نِعْمَتِ الْبِدْعَةُ فِي لِسَانِ الْعَرَبِ اخْتِرَاعُ مَا لَمْ يَكُنْ وَابْتِدَاؤُهُ فَمَا كَانَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فِي الدِّينِ خِلَافًا لِلسُّنَّةِ الَّتِي مَضَى عَلَيْهَا الْعَمَلُ فَتِلْكَ بِدَعَةٌ لَا خَيْرَ فِيهَا وَوَاجِبٌ ذَمُّهَا وَالنَّهْيُ عَنْهَا وَالْأَمْرُ بِاجْتِنَابِهَا وَهِجْرَانُ مُبْتَدِعِهَا إِذَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ سُوءُ مَذْهَبِهِ وَمَا كَانَ مِنْ بِدْعَةٍ لَا تُخَالِفُ أَصْلَ الشَّرِيعَةِ وَالسُّنَّةِ فَتِلْكَ نِعْمَتِ الْبِدْعَةُ كَمَا قَالَ عُمَرُ لِأَنَّ أَصْلَ مَا فَعَلَهُ سُنَّةٌ
وَكَذَلِكَ قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عُمَرَ فِي صَلَاةِ الضُّحَى وَكَانَ لَا يَعْرِفُهَا وَكَانَ يَقُولُ وَلِلضُّحَى صلاة
وذكر بن أبي شيبة عن بن عُلَيَّةَ عَنِ الْجَرِيرِيِّ عَنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنِ الْأَعْرَجِ قال سألت بن عُمَرَ عَنْ صَلَاةِ الضُّحَى فَقَالَ بِدْعَةٌ وَنِعْمَتِ الْبِدْعَةُ
وَقَدْ قَالَ تَعَالَى حَاكِيًا عَنْ أَهْلِ الكتاب (ورهبانية ابتدعوها ما كتبنها عليهم إلا ابتغاء رضوان الله الحديد 27
وَأَمَّا ابْتِدَاعُ الْأَشْيَاءِ مِنْ أَعْمَالِ الدُّنْيَا فَهَذَا لَا حَرَجَ فِيهِ وَلَا عَيْبَ عَلَى فَاعِلِهِ

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-1722/page-586#page-586

Rough translation:

Quote

As for the saying of Umar رضي الله عنه  “What a good innovation this is”, in the language of the Arabs it is to invent what has not (previously existed) and to originate it. So whatever was from that (i.e., innovated) in the religion opposes the Sunnah which was practiced in the past, that is a Bidah. There is no good in it and it is necessary to condemn it and forbid it and command (people) to avoid it and to abandon the innovator when he finds out his bad doctrine. And it is not considered a Bidah if it does not contradict the basis (asl) of the Sharia and Sunnah. It is (instead) a good innovation, as Umarرضي الله عنه  said, because the basis (asl) of what he did was from the Sunnah.

Similarly, Abdullah ibn Umarرضي الله عنه  said about Salat Ad-Duha, (…) as Ibn Abi Shaybah reported from (…..) that Ibn Umar was asked about Salat ad-Duha, he said it is an innovation and a good innovation.

And Allah Almighty said the story about the people of the Book {and monasticism, which they innovated; We did not prescribe it for them except [that they did so] seeking the approval of Allah}[Q 57:27]

As for innovating things in worldly matters, there is nothing wrong with it and there is no blemish on the one who does it.

End Quote

On the difference between Imam Malik and Imam Shafi on Bidah

The classification of Bidah (i.e., innovation in religion) into praiseworthy & blameworthy or into obligatory, recommended, permissible, disliked, forbidden and such are well established by majority of scholars among all four schools of Sunni Islam. The scholars have agreed that not all innovation is evil and a matter not existing during the time of the Salaf does not necessarily imply the rejection of the matter. Instead they have explained that if an innovated matter has a basis in Quran, Sunnah, Ijma, Qiyas or other sources of evidences in the Sharia either in general or detail, than such a matter is not necessarily rejected. What follows then is an ijthihad done by scholars in categorizing an innovated matter into one of these classifications of Bidah and as a result it is natural that there exist at times difference of opinion among mujtahid scholars within a school as well as across the schools, in their conclusions because of the difference in weighing of evidence, applying the principles of fiqh and so forth.

However there is also another sub category whereby an innovated matter has no clear basis in the sharia nor rejected by the Sharia or a case where an innovated matter has a basis in Sharia however it was not acted upon by the Salaf or that that no specific form is known from the Salaf with regards to it. The Maliki scholar Shaykh Uthman Don Fodio in his book “Ihya’u as-Sunna wa Ikhmad al-Bid`a” goes onto mention the existence of a difference between Imam Malik and Imam Shafi on this, may Allah be pleased with them all.

Similarly elsewhere the Imam says,

Quotes taken from the book Ihya’u as-Sunna wa Ikhmad al-Bid`a : http://siiasi.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Ihyas-Sunna_wa_Ikhmadl-Bida_The_Revival.pdf

When is Bidah disapproved: Imam Uthman Ibn Fodio (d. 1817)

microsoft-word-ihya-s-sunna-wa-ikhmad-l-bida-disapproval-of-bidah

From the book: Ihya’u as-Sunna wa Ikhmad al-Bid`a (The Revival of the Sunna and Destruction of Innovation) of the great Maliki jurist, Qadiri sufi, mujahid, Imam & the reviver of Islam, Shaykh Uthman Ibn Fodio (rah).

Source link: http://siiasi.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Ihyas-Sunna_wa_Ikhmadl-Bida_The_Revival.pdf

Reciting poetry in the Masjid

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One of the prominent practices among Muslim communities during the month of Rabi-ul Awwal and the day of birth of our Prophet ﷺ (as well as otherwise) is to hold gathering in which poetry is recited in praise of the Prophet ﷺ. One of the clear evidence for this as cited by scholars is the practice of the Sahabi Hassan Bin Thabit رضى الله عنه who was known to be skilled in reciting poetry in defense and praise of the Prophet ﷺ.

Imam Muslim in his Sahih, mentioned a number of hadiths under the header “The Virtues Of Hassan Bin Thabit رضى الله عنه”. The first two of the narrations are quoted below:

دَّثَنَا عَمْرٌو النَّاقِدُ، وَإِسْحَاقُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، وَابْنُ أَبِي عُمَرَ، كُلُّهُمْ عَنْ سُفْيَانَ، قَالَ عَمْرٌو حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ بْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ عُمَرَ، مَرَّ بِحَسَّانَ وَهُوَ يُنْشِدُ الشِّعْرَ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ فَلَحَظَ إِلَيْهِ فَقَالَ قَدْ كُنْتُ أُنْشِدُ وَفِيهِ مَنْ هُوَ خَيْرٌ مِنْكَ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ الْتَفَتَ إِلَى أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ فَقَالَ أَنْشُدُكَ اللَّهَ أَسَمِعْتَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏“‏ أَجِبْ عَنِّي اللَّهُمَّ أَيِّدْهُ بِرُوحِ الْقُدُسِ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ اللَّهُمَّ نَعَمْ ‏.‏

Abu Huraira reported that ‘Umar happened to pass by Hassan as he was reciting verses (i.e., poetry) in the mosque. He (Hadrat ‘Umar) looked towards him (meaningfully), whereupon he (Hassan) said: I used to recite (poetry) when one better than you (the Holy Prophet) had been present (here). He then looked towards Abu Huraira and said to him: I adjure you by Allah (to tell) if you had not heard Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying: (Hassan), give a reply on my behalf; Allah help him with Ruh-ul-Qudus (Gabriel). He (Abu Huraira) said: By Allah, it is so (i. e. the Prophet actually said these words).

حَدَّثَنَاهُ إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ رَافِعٍ، وَعَبْدُ بْنُ حُمَيْدٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّزَّاقِ، أَخْبَرَنَا مَعْمَرٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنِ ابْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، أَنَّ حَسَّانَ، قَالَ فِي حَلْقَةٍ فِيهِمْ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ أَنْشُدُكَ اللَّهَ يَا أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ أَسَمِعْتَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.‏ فَذَكَرَ مِثْلَهُ ‏.‏

Ibn Musayyib reported that Hassan said to a circle in which there was also Abu Huraira: Abu Huraira, I adjure you by Allah (to tell) whether you-had not heard Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) saying like this.

Imam Nawawi in his commentary to Sahih Muslim, comments on these narrations:

قوله : ( إن حسان أنشد الشعر في المسجد بإذن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ) فيه جواز إنشاد الشعر في المسجد إذا كان مباحا ، واستحبابه إذا كان في ممادح الإسلام وأهله ، أو في هجاء الكفار والتحريض على قتالهم ، أو تحقيرهم ، ونحو ذلك وهكذا كان شعر حسان . وفيه استحباب الدعاء لمن قال شعرا من هذا النوع . وفيه جواز الانتصار من الكفار ، ويجوز أيضا من غيرهم بشرطه . وروح القدس جبريل صلى الله عليه وسلم .

http://library.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?bk_no=53&ID=1158&idfrom=7370&idto=7381&bookid=53&startno=0

Imam Nawawi here says that it is permissible to recite poetry in the masjid, and mustahabb (recommended/virtuous deed) if the recitation is in praise of Islam and its people.
 The following are relevant points to be noted:
  • Poetry was read in the masjid during the presence & life of the Prophet ﷺ as well as after.
  • Poetry was read in presence of a circle/gathering (as mentioned in the second narration) which included the prominent companion Abu Hurayra رضى الله عنه.
  • This was not just a permissible practice but a sunnah & rewarding deed when done in praise and defense of Islam, the Prophet ﷺ and the people of Islam.
  • It is mustahabb/recommended to make dua for those who recite such poetry, as mentioned by Imam Nawawi above.
  • Prophet ﷺ actively encouraged Hassan Bin Thabit رضى الله عنه as well others from the companions to recite such poetry, as seen in another following narration from Sahih Muslim where the Prophet ﷺ sent for a number companions such Ibn Rawiha رضى الله عنه and Ka’b bin Malik رضى الله عنه to recite poetry in defense of Islam.
  • Prophet ﷺ prayed and informed Hassan Bin Thabit رضى الله عنه  that he was supported by Angel Jibril عليه السلام while in another narration that the Angel Jibril عليه السلام will continue to support him as long he continues to defend Allah and His Messenger.
  • The Sharia has not limited this practice to any fixed form or fixed day and therefore does not prohibit such gathering on Rabi ul Awwal and on the day of the birth of our Prophet ﷺ.

Finally, Imam al-Bukhari in his book Al Adab al Mufrad dedicated an entire chapter for the subject of poetry. In one of the hadith, the Prophet ﷺ explicitly approved of poetry as a form of praise of Allah (i.e. dhikr & worship of Allah).

Al-Aswad ibn Suray’ said, “I was a poet and went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and asked, ‘Shall I recite some praises I have written for my Lord?’ He said, ‘Your Lord loves praise,’ and did not say anything more.” [Al-Adab Al-Mufrad 861]

http://sunnah.com/adab/36/6

Imam Ibn Hibban (d. 354): Allah is not in time or place

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Imam Abu Hatim Muhammed ibn Hibban (271-354H) was an early hadith scholar and a Shafi jurist. From among his teachers were hadith scholars Imam An-Nasai and Imam Ibn Khuzaimah. His famous work “Sahih Ibn Hibban” is said to be the most authentic collection of hadiths after Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim and Sahih Ibn Khuzaimah. In this work, Imam Ibn Hibban at times provides his commentary to the narrations, some of which are quoted below and roughly translated.

Allah is not in time or place

قَالَ أَبُو حَاتِمٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ: «وَهِمَ فِي هَذِهِ اللَّفْظَةِ حَمَّادُ بْنُ سَلَمَةَ مِنْ حَيْثُ فِي غَمَامٍ إِنَّمَا هُوَ فِي عَمَاءٍ، يُرِيدُ بِهِ أَنَّ الْخَلْقَ لَا يَعْرِفُونَ خَالِقَهُمْ مِنْ حَيْثُ هُمْ، إِذْ كَانَ وَلَا زَمَانَ وَلَا مَكَانَ، وَمَنْ لَمْ يُعْرَفْ لَهُ زَمَانٌ، وَلَا مَكَانٌ وَلَا شَيْءٌ مَعَهُ، لِأَنَّهُ خَالِقُهَا، كَانَ مَعْرِفَةُ الْخَلْقِ إِيَّاهُ كَأَنَّهُ كَانَ فِي عَمَاءٍ عَنْ عِلْمِ الْخَلْقِ، لَا أَنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ فِي عَمَاءٍ إِذْ هَذَا الْوَصْفُ شَبِيهٌ بِأَوْصَافِ الْمَخْلُوقِينَ»

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-1734/page-12267#page-12267

“….He means the creation does not know where the Creator is, as He was without time and without place, and one does know of time or place or anything with him….”

This is similar to what Imam Ibn Hibban has said in his book “Ath-thiqah” (Volume 1, page 1) :

الحمد لله الذي ليس له حد محدود فيحتوى, ولا له أجل معدود فيفنى, ولا يحيط به جوامع المكان, ولا يشتمل عليه تواتر الزمان

“Praise be to Allah, Who is free of limits … who is not situated by any of the places and who is not subject to the passage of time ”

Taken from: https://islamsunnite.wordpress.com/2011/07/01/le-hafidh-ibn-hibban-dit-que-allah-est-sans-endroit-et-quil-ne-depend-pas-du-temps/

Nuzul (lit. Descent) of Allah is not a movement from place to place

قَالَ أَبُو حَاتِمٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ: صِفَاتُ اللَّهِ جَلَّ وَعَلَا لَا تُكَيَّفُ، وَلَا تُقَاسُ إِلَى صِفَاتِ الْمَخْلُوقِينَ، فَكَمَا أَنَّ اللَّهَ جَلَّ وَعَلَا مُتَكَلِّمٌ مِنْ غَيْرِ آلَةٍ بَأَسْنَانٍ وَلَهَوَاتٍ وَلِسَانٍ وَشَفَةٍ كَالْمَخْلُوقِينَ، جَلَّ رَبُّنَا وَتَعَالَى عَنْ مِثْلِ هَذَا وَأَشْبَاهِهِ، وَلَمْ يَجُزْ أَنْ يُقَاسَ كَلَامُهُ إِلَى كَلَامِنَا، لِأَنَّ كَلَامَ الْمَخْلُوقِينَ لَا يُوجَدُ إِلَّا بِآلَاتٍ، وَاللَّهُ جَلَّ وَعَلَا يَتَكَلَّمُ كَمَا شَاءَ بِلَا آلَةٍ، كَذَلِكَ يَنْزِلُ بِلَا آلَةٍ، وَلَا تَحَرُّكٍ، وَلَا انْتِقَالٍ مِنْ مَكَانٍ إِلَى مَكَانٍ، وَكَذَلِكَ السَّمْعُ وَالْبَصَرُ، فَكَمَا لَمْ يَجُزْ أَنْ يُقَالَ: اللَّهُ يُبْصِرُ كَبَصَرِنَا بِالْأَشْفَارِ وَالْحَدَقِ وَالْبَيَاضِ، بَلْ يُبْصِرُ كَيْفَ يَشَاءُ بِلَا آلَةٍ، وَيَسْمَعُ مِنْ غَيْرِ أُذُنَيْنِ، وَسِمَاخَيْنِ، وَالْتِوَاءٍ، وَغَضَارِيفَ فِيهَا، بَلْ يَسْمَعُ كَيْفَ يَشَاءُ بِلَا آلَةٍ، وَكَذَلِكَ يَنْزِلُ كَيْفَ يَشَاءُ بِلَا آلَةٍ مِنْ غَيْرِ أَنْ يُقَاسَ نُزُولُهُ إِلَى نُزُولِ الْمَخْلُوقِينَ، كَمَا يُكَيَّفُ نُزُولُهُمْ، جَلَّ رَبُّنَا وَتَقَدَّسَ مِنْ أَنْ تُشَبَّهَ صِفَاتُهُ بِشَيْءٍ مِنْ صِفَاتِ الْمَخْلُوقِينَ

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-1734/page-1830

In commentary to the hadith of the Nuzul of Allah during the Night, he says:

“….the attribute of Allah cannot be likened nor measured with the attributes of creation, just as Allah is (attributed to be a) Speaker without (need for) instruments, tongue, teeth, lip like creatures do …..It is not permissible to liken the Speech of Allah with speech of creation as it (speech of creation) cannot exist except as instruments, and Allah Almighty Speaks as He Wills without instruments, similarly the Descent is without instruments, nor movements, nor transition from place to place, similar to this is the Hearing and Seeing, ….He Sees as He Wills without instruments and Hears without Ears…and instead Hears as He Wills without instruments, (similarity) He descends as He Wills without instruments,  It is not to be likened to the descent of creatures….”

Tawil of  Saq (lit. Shin) to mean Severity

قَالَ أَبُو حَاتِمٍ : السَّاقُ الشِّدَّةُ

http://hadithportal.com/h442612

On the narration which mentions of “Saq” used by Salafiyya to attribute Allah with legs, Imam Ibn Hibban interprets it to means “severity”. This tawil is no different to tawil by Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Qatada, Ibn Qutaybah and others from the Salaf (may Allah be pleased with them), as related by Imam Tabari and others in commentary to verse of Quran 68:42. Imam Ahmed Bin Hanbal also narrated the tawil of Ibn Abbas رضي الله عنه‎‎:

اعلم أنني سلكت في تفسير هذا الحرف سبيلَ كثير من [علماء السنة]، وسوّغ ذلك: أن ابن عباس والحسن في جماعة من التابعين فَسَّرُوه بهذا التفسير، ونقله الإمام أحمد ورواه.
قال الزجاج في معانيه: أخبرنا عبدالله بن أحمد بن محمد بن حنبل قال: حدثنا أبي، أخبرنا محمد بن جعفر، عن شعبة، عن مغيرة، عن إبراهيم قال: قال ابن عباس في قوله: { يَوْمَ يُكْشَفُ عَن سَاقٍ }: الأمر الشديد.

http://altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=111&tSoraNo=68&tAyahNo=42&tDisplay=yes&Page=1&Size=1&LanguageId=1

On the hadith “Allah puts His Qadam (lit. Foot) in Hell”

With regards to the authentic hadith that says:
“Hell would continue to say: Is there anything more, until Allah, the Exalted and High, would place His foot therein and that would say: Enough, Enough”
[In another narration it is said: “And as regards the Hell it would not be full until Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, places His foot therein, and it would say: Enough, enough, enough, and it would be then full” which if taken in bare literal terms would mean hell would fill up with the “foot” of Allah]
Imam Ibn Hibban explains that,
قَالَ أَبُو حَاتِمٍ: هَذَا الْخَبَرُ مِنَ الْأَخْبَارِ الَّتِي أُطْلِقَتْ بِتَمْثِيلِ الْمُجَاوَرَةِ، وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يُلْقَى فِي النَّارِ مِنَ الْأُمَمِ وَالْأَمْكِنَةِ الَّتِي عُصِيَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهَا، فَلَا تَزَالُ تَسْتَزِيدُ حَتَّى يَضَعَ الرَّبُّ جَلَّ وَعَلَا مَوْضِعًا مِنَ الْكُفَّارِ وَالْأَمْكِنَةِ فِي النَّارِ، فَتَمْتَلِئُ فَتَقُولُ: قَطْ قَطْ، تُرِيدُ: حَسْبِي حَسْبِي، لِأَنَّ الْعَرَبَ تُطْلِقُ فِي لُغَتِهَا اسْمَ الْقَدَمِ عَلَى الْمَوْضِعِ، قَالَ اللَّهُ جَلَّ وَعَلَا: {لَهُمْ قَدَمُ صِدْقٍ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ} [يونس: 2]، يُرِيدُ: مَوْضِعَ صِدْقٍ، لَا أَنَّ اللَّهَ جَلَّ وَعَلَا يَضَعُ قَدَمَهُ فِي النَّارِ، جَلَّ رَبُّنَا وَتَعَالَى عَنْ مِثْلِ هَذَا وَأَشْبَاهِهِ
in Arab linguistic usage foot is used to mean position/locus,  like in the verse {Warn mankind and bring unto those who believe the good tidings that they have a sure footing with their Lord} [Quran 10:2] where “sure footing” here according to him means sure position, and Imam Ibn Hibban says it (the narration) does not  mean that Allah will place His “Qadam” (literally foot) in fire.
I.e. just as the Quranic verse does not mean the believers will have their literal foot with Allah and instead the foot is metaphor to a position, or a reward, or reference to the Prophet (saw) as mentioned in tafsirs of this verse; similarly this hadith does not mean a literal “foot” is placed in hell.

 

On the hadith “Allah created Adam in his image”

He says that “his image” cannot be referring to Allah as it Kufr and Allah has no likeness, and instead it means image of Adam عليه السلام himself, in the sense that image of Adam عليه السلام was created by Allah directly such as his appearance and height, while others in creation are not directly created but go through means and phases such as meeting of male & female and physical phases in the womb.

قَالَ أَبُو حَاتِمٍ: «هَذَا الْخَبَرُ تَعَلَّقَ بِهِ مَنْ لَمْ يُحْكِمُ صِنَاعَةَ الْعِلْمِ وَأَخَذَ يُشَنِّعُ عَلَى أَهْلِ الْحَدِيثِ الَّذِينَ يَنْتَحِلُونَ السُّنَنَ، وَيَذُبُّونَ عَنْهَا، وَيَقْمَعُونَ مَنْ خَالَفَهَا بِأَنْ قَالَ: لَيْسَتْ تَخْلُو هَذِهِ الْهَاءُ مِنْ أَنْ تُنْسَبَ إِلَى اللَّهِ أَوْ إِلَى آدَمَ، فَإِنْ نُسِبَتْ إِلَى اللَّهِ كَانَ ذَلِكَ كُفْرًا، إِذْ {لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ} [الشورى: 11]، وَإِنْ نُسِبَتْ إِلَى آدَمَ تَعَرَّى الْخَبَرُ عَنِ الْفَائِدَةِ، لِأَنَّهُ لَا شَكَّ أَنَّ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خُلِقَ عَلَى صُورَتِهِ لَا عَلَى صُورَةِ غَيْرِهِ، وَلَوْ تَمَلَّقَ قَائِلُ هَذَا إِلَى بَارِئِهِ فِي الْخَلْوَةِ، وَسَأَلَهُ التَّوْفِيقَ لِإِصَابَةِ الْحَقِّ وَالْهِدَايَةِ لِلطَّرِيقِ الْمُسْتَقِيمِ فِي لُزُومِ سُنَنِ الْمُصْطَفَى صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَكَانَ أَوْلَى بِهِ مِنَ الْقَدْحِ فِي مُنْتَحِلِي السُّنَنِ بِمَا يَجْهَلُ مَعْنَاهُ، وَلَيْسَ جَهْلُ الْإِنْسَانِ بِالشَّيْءِ دَالًا عَلَى نَفْيِ الْحَقِّ عَنْهُ لِجَهْلِهِ بِهِ.
وَنَحْنُ نَقُولُ: إِنَّ أَخْبَارَ الْمُصْطَفَى صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِذَا صَحَّتْ مِنْ جِهَةِ النَّقْلِ لَا تَتَضَادَّ، وَلَا تَتَهَاتَرُ، وَلَا تَنْسَخُ الْقُرْآنَ بَلْ لِكُلِّ خَبَرٍ مَعْنًى مَعْلُومٌ يُعْلَمُ، وَفَصْلٌ صَحِيحٌ يُعْقَلُ، يَعْقِلُهُ الْعَالِمُونَ.
فَمَعْنَى الْخَبَرِ عِنْدَنَا بِقَوْلِهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: » خَلَقَ اللَّهُ آدَمَ عَلَى صُورَتِهِ «: إِبَانَةُ فَضْلِ آدَمَ عَلَى سَائِرِ الْخَلْقِ، وَالْهَاءُ رَاجِعَةٌ إِلَى آدَمَ، وَالْفَائِدَةُ مِنْ رُجُوعِ الْهَاءِ إِلَى آدَمَ دُونَ إِضَافَتِهَا إِلَى الْبَارِئِ جَلَّ وَعَلَا – جَلَّ رَبُّنَا وَتَعَالَى عَنْ أَنْ يُشَبَّهُ بِشَيْءٍ مِنَ الْمَخْلُوقِينَ – أَنَّهُ جَلَّ وَعَلَا جَعَلَ سَبَبَ الْخَلْقِ الَّذِي هُوَ الْمُتَحَرِّكُ النَّامِي بِذَاتِهِ اجْتِمَاعَ الذَّكَرِ وَالْأُنْثَى، ثُمَّ زَوَالَ الْمَاءِ عَنْ قَرَارِ الذَّكَرِ إِلَى رَحِمِ الْأُنْثَى، ثُمَّ تَغَيُّرَ ذَلِكَ إِلَى الْعَلَقَةِ بَعْدَ مُدَّةٍ، ثُمَّ إِلَى الْمُضْغَةِ، ثُمَّ إِلَى الصُّورَةِ، ثُمَّ إِلَى الْوَقْتِ الْمَمْدُودِ فِيهِ، ثُمَّ الْخُرُوجِ مِنْ قَرَارِهِ، ثُمَّ الرَّضَاعِ، ثُمَّ الْفِطَامِ، ثُمَّ الْمَرَاتِبِ الْأُخَرِ عَلَى حَسَبِ مَا ذَكَرْنَا إِلَى حُلُولِ الْمَنِيَّةِ بِهِ.
هَذَا وَصْفُ الْمُتَحَرِّكِ النَّامِي بِذَاتِهِ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ وَخَلْقِ اللَّهِ جَلَّ وَعَلَّا آدَمَ عَلَى صُورَتِهِ الَّتِي خَلْقَهُ عَلَيْهَا، وَطُولُهُ سِتُّونَ ذِرَاعًا مِنْ غَيْرِ أَنْ تَكُونَ تَقْدُمُهُ اجْتِمَاعُ الذَّكَرِ وَالْأُنْثَى، أَوْ زَوَالُ الْمَاءِ، أَوْ قَرَارُهُ، أَوْ تَغْيِيرُ الْمَاءِ عَلَقَةً أَوْ مُضْغَةً، أَوْ تَجْسِيمُهُ بَعْدَهُ، فَأَبَانَ اللَّهُ بِهَذَا فَضْلَهُ عَلَى سَائِرِ مَنْ ذَكَرْنَا مِنْ خَلْقِهِ، بِأَنَّهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ نُطْفَةً فَعَلَقَةً، وَلَا عَلَقَةً فَمُضْغَةً، وَلَا مُضْغَةً فَرَضِيعًا، وَلَا رَضِيعًا فَفَطِيمًا، وَلَا فَطِيمًا فَشَابًّا كَمَا كَانَتْ هَذِهِ حَالَةُ غَيْرِهِ ضِدَّ قَوْلِ مَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّ أَصْحَابَ الْحَدِيثِ حَشْوِيَّةٌ يَرْوُونَ مَا لَا يَعْقِلُونَ وَيَحْتَجُّونَ بِمَا لَا يَدْرُونَ»

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-1734#page-12308

Allah Sees not with eyes and Hears not with ears

In a hadith where the Prophet  places his finger over the ear and eyes while reciting the verse {Allah is ever Hearing and Seeing}, he comments on it that it does not mean Allah Sees with eyes or Hears with ears, and instead Allah Sees and Hears without instruments as He Wills.

قَالَ أَبُو حَاتِمٍ: أَرَادَ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِوَضْعِهِ أُصْبُعَهُ عَلَى أُذُنِهِ وَعَيْنِهِ تَعْرِيفَ النَّاسِ أَنَّ اللَّهَ جَلَّ وَعَلَا لَا يَسْمَعُ بِالْأُذُنِ الَّتِي لَهَا سِمَاخٌ وَالْتِوَاءٌ، وَلَا يُبْصِرُ بِالْعَيْنِ الَّتِي لَهَا أَشْفَارٌ وَحَدَقٌ وَبَيَاضٌ، جَلَّ رَبُّنَا وَتَعَالَى عَنْ أَنْ يُشَبَّهَ بِخَلْقِهِ فِي شَيْءٍ مِنَ الْأَشْيَاءِ، بَلْ يَسْمَعُ وَيُبْصِرُ بِلَا آلَةٍ كَيْفَ يَشَاءُ

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-1734/page-521#page-518

On the hadith “It (date) is nurtured in the hand of Ar-Rahman”

Imam Ibn Hibban under the following header,

ذِكْرُ الْخَبَرِ الدَّالِّ عَلَى أَنَّ هَذِهِ الْأَخْبَارَ أُطْلِقَتْ بِأَلْفَاظِ التَّمْثِيلِ وَالتَّشْبِيهِ عَلَى حَسَبِ مَا يَتَعَارَفُهُ النَّاسُ بَيْنَهُمْ، دُونَ كَيْفِيَّتِهَا أَوْ وُجُودِ حَقَائِقِهَا
“….reports …. with wording that are comparison and metaphorical…without howness and presence of reality”
mentions the narration of Abu Hurairah narrating that: the Messenger of Allah  said: “None gives charity from Tayyib – and Allah does not accept but Tayyib – but that Ar-Rahman accepts it with His Right (Hand). Even if it is a date, it is nurtured in the Hand of Ar-Rahman until it is greater than a mountain, just as one of you nurtures his foal or young camel.”

After which he says,

 قَالَ أَبُو حَاتِمٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ: قَوْلُهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «إِلَّا كَأَنَّمَا يَضَعُهَا فِي يَدِ الرَّحْمَنِ» يُبَيِّنُ لَكَ أَنَّ هَذِهِ الْأَخْبَارَ أُطْلِقَتْ بِأَلْفَاظِ التَّمْثِيلِ دُونَ وُجُودِ حَقَائِقِهَا، أَوِ الْوُقُوفِ عَلَى كَيْفِيَّتِهَا، إِذْ لَمْ يَتَهَيَّأْ مَعْرِفَةُ الْمُخَاطَبِ بِهَذِهِ الْأَشْيَاءِ إِلَّا بِالْأَلْفَاظِ الَّتِي أُطْلِقَتْ بِهَا

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-1734/page-527

that the saying  “it is nurtured in the Hand of Ar-Rahman” shows the wording of report is a comparison without presence of reality.

 

Sunni Scholars gather and reaffirm who are Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamah

Senior Muslim Scholars from around the world met in Grozny, Chechnya for 3 days. Final Conference Statement was issued in which they reaffirmed “Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamah” or “Sunnis” are the Asharis and Maturidis in Belief, people of Four schools in Jurisprudence, and the people of Tassawuf, purification, morals on the way of Imam Junaid al Baghdadi and pursue on the methodology of the Guided Imams.

Full Statement in Arabic here: http://www.naseemalsham.com/ar/Pages.php?page=readviestor&pg_id=55821&page1=1

 

 

Add 03/09/2016:

The conference and final statement as expected brought flak from certain crowds, namely Salafi, Ikhwani, Hizb ut Tahrir and so on.

Islam of Ikhwani, Hizb ut-Tahrir being about politics, their complains were directed at the venue and also that it does not speak about Syria. Which is silly as most of them do not recognize any country in the Muslim or Non-Muslim world to begin with (except maybe one where the government is hand in glove with them) and consider them all tyrants, taghut or crusaders, so no matter which venue they will have something to complain about. Moreover the subject of the conference was not about Syria that they are supposed to talk about Syria. Its one of those arguments where if a scholar gives a lesson on Wudu, a person comes along proudly denouncing it with “why isn’t he speaking about the oppression of Muslims”. 

Conference in Grozny was organized in tandem with ulema of Chechenya. This is a place with rich and long tradition of Ahlu Sunnah. This is also the place where Sunni ulema initiated Jihad against Russian occupation but after the jihad was hijacked and distorted by the Wahhabiya/Khawarij, they had to take a different approach to the conflict. 52 or more scholars of Ahlus Sunnah were killed by the Khawarij there. And hence the conference is also relevant to the Muslims of Chechnya in conveying who are Ahlus Sunnah and being firm on this path, as well as ofcourse in dealing with larger problem of takfiris who have hijacked Sunni Islam and Jihad all over the world.

The Najd based Wahhabism in addition to this also complain that “Ahlu Hadith” were not included as Ahlu Sunnah Wal Jamah. Now this “Ahlu Hadith” is not a clear defined group or school in the same way of Asharis or Maturidis. Ahlu Hadith is a terminology used by certain scholars more like a synonym to Ahlu Sunnah. Are we to say that the scholars of Asharis and Maturidis are not people of hadith when giants of hadith scholars come from them ? This is similar to usage of “Salaf” which will be used in certain context to identify but cannot be used as though Asharis and Maturidis are different from the Salaf. If the classification is to be made based on usage of Ilm al-Kalam, then this is not a different school of belief but only a method of defending and exposition of the belief of Ahlu Sunnah. There are scholars who are specialist in Ilm al Kalam within the school of Asharis/Maturidis while others being a specialist in hadith, tafsir,  usool and so on. Moreover, even scholars that Salafiyya rely on like Qadi Abu Yala and Ibn Taymiyya would be considered a mutakkalim because of their heavy use of Kalam. In reality, Ashari/Maturidis are the inheritors of the school of righteous Salaf & Ahlu hadith, and the differences with some of the righteous Hanbali scholars in Aqeeda are minor similar to differences between Imam al-Bukhari (rah.) and Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal (rah.) and such minor differences will exist even within Asharis and Maturidi scholars as much as differences exist within Hanabli scholars themselves. The creed of Ashari and Maturidi school encompasses creed of all righteous Salaf and Imams of Ahlus Sunnah including Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal and the Hanbalis. This is because when the Muatazilite and Karramites were in power, it was the Asharis and Maturidis that came along and defended the creed of Salaf & Ahlu Hadith and emerged victorious and hence the Ahlu Sunnah schools came to be represented by them and carried forward by them differentiating them from the others. This is not to say that usage of “Ahlu Hadith” is wrong if used by any scholar but that many Imams of the past defined Ahlu Sunnah as Ashari and Maturidi schools in Aqeeda and this is the usage continued in this conference and there is nothing wrong with such usage.

As for the importance of clarifying who are the Sunnis, its because of the fact that majority of Sunni Muslim world have always been Asharis/Maturids in creed, and followed one of the four schools in Fiqh and adopted schools of Tassawuf. It has been the schools adopted by nearly all the Muslim caliphates of the past, the schools of all the major Islamic institutions from Far East to Far West in past and present. Despite this being the fact, we the majority are being classed as “Sufis” as though it is an offshoot of Sunnism while in reality we are the first who should be classified as Sunnis. And moreover we today have groups who do not follow the schools of Ahlus Sunnah being called as “Sunnis” like the la madhabis in fiqh, or anthropomorphists or many takfiri creeds or those waging war against tassawuf, that have risen in our time who do not follow and are deviated from the Aqeeda, Fiqh and methodology of Ahlu Sunnah.  As a result we see takfiris as deviant as Daesh being labelled as “Sunni Jihadis” and it is pertinent in this context that Sunnis reclaim what is Sunnism and that our difference with takfiris are not reduced to legality of burning prisoners of war, but start from the foundations of Aqeeda & Jurisprudence. In the backdrop of all these fitna are also Libertine or Muatazili oriented groups adding fitna with their own innovations whether in Aqeeda or Fiqh or spirituality. Like fitnas of the past we are likely to see more deviant sects emerge in these times divergent from Ahlu Sunnah. The conference has shed focus on a foundational aspect of Sunnis with input from several senior scholars, uniting on this subject, cooperating between them on this basis and continue to be a subject of focus and perspective tomorrow. Let those who disagree with the definition gather their own whether Ikhwani, Takfiri, Madhkali, La-Madhabi, Hizb Ut Tahrir, Qaeda or whoever and release their own statement. That statement or their inability to do so will speak for itself.

Add 15/09/2016:

fatwas-of-al-lajnah-on-twitter-shaykh-saalih-al-fawzaan-asharee-s-say-we-re-ahlus-sunnah-but-that-s-not-true-rather-they-were-never-upon-the-manhaj-of-ahlus-sunnah

In apparent response to conference, a senior Salafi Najdi scholar and member of their biggest fatwa body and recognized by all Salafis, comes out to lay bare his belief that Asharis are not Ahlus Sunnah. In other words, the vast majority of the Ummah and Imams of Sunni Islam are not Ahlus Sunnah. Let those crying crocodile tears of “sectarianism” about this conference, see where sectarianism really emerges from.

Ibn Juzayy al-Kalbi (d. 741H) on Tawhid

68Al-Ahad_copy

Ibn Juzayy al-Kalbi al-Gharnaouti, in his commentary work on the Quran “Tasheel li Ulum al-Tanzeel”, comments on the verse:

And your god is one God. There is no god except Him, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful. [2:163]

{ وَإِلَـٰهُكُمْ إِلَـٰهٌ وَٰحِدٌ } الواحد له ثلاثة معان كلها صحيحة في حق الله تعالى: أحدها: أنه لا ثاني له فهو نفي للعدد، والآخر: أنه لا شريك له، والثالث: أنه لا يتبعض ولا ينقسم، وقد فسر المراد به هنا في قوله؛ لا إلٰه إلاّ هو.

واعلم أن توحيد الخلق لله تعالى على ثلاث درجات الأولى: توحيد عامة المسلمين وهو الذي يعصم النفس من الهلك في الدنيا، وينجي من الخلود في النار في الآخرة، وهو نفي الشركاء والأنداد، والصاحبة والأولاد، والأشباه والأضداد.

الدرجة الثانية: توحيد الخاصة، وهو أن يرى الأفعال كلها صادرة من الله وحده ويشاهد ذلك بطريق المكاشفة لا بطريق الاستدلال الحاصل لكل مؤمن، وإنما مقام الخاص في التوحيد يغني في القلب بعلم ضروري لا يحتاج إلى دليل، وثمرة هذا العلم الانقطاع إلى الله والتوكل عليه وحده واطراح جميع الخلق، فلا يرجو إلا الله، ولا يخاف أحداً سواه إذ ليس يرى فاعلاً إلاّ إياه ويرى جميع الخلق في قبضة القهر ليس بيدهم شيء من الأمر، فيطرح الأسباب وينبذ الأرباب،

والدرجة الثالثة: ألا يرى في الوجود إلا الله وحده فيغيب عن النظر إلى المخلوقات، حتى كأنها عنده معدومة. وهذا الذي تسميه الصوفية مقام الفناء بمعنى الغيبة عن الخلق حتى أنه قد يفنى عن نفسه، وعن توحيده: أي يغيب عن ذلك باستغراقه في مشاهدة الله.

Source

Rough Translation:

{And your god is one God}  Wahid (i.e., “one”), has three meanings all of which are correct in right of Allah Almighty: First: That He is not a second, He denied the number; Second: That He does not have a partner; and third: That He is not distributed nor divided, (which is) the interpretation intended here by the saying {There is no god except Him}.

And know that Tawhid has three stations, First: Tawhid of the generality of Muslims, it will protect him in this created world, and save him from eternity in the Hell fire in the next life. He denies Him a partner or an equal, an associate or a child, likeness or an opposite.

The second station: Tawhid of the special/distinguished, He believes that all his actions are issued from Allah alone and witness it by way of disclosure and not by way of reasoning (as done) by all believers,  but rather this special station of Tawhid enriches the heart with the necessary knowledge without the need for proof. The fruit of this knowledge is the dedication to Allah and trust in Him alone and discarding all of creation, having no hopes or requests but from Allah, and fearing none else (but Him), he would see that nothing can cause effect but by Him, and sees all of creation in the grip of the Subduer, not in his (own) hands is any command over matters, he discards the (correlative natural) causes and discards (false) lords.

The third station: He does not see anything in existence but Allah alone, the creation is hidden from his sight until like non-existent. This is what the Sufis call the station of Fana, meaning he stays away (hides) from creation until he annihilates his self, and (hence) tawhid: to be concealed by immersing himself in the Sight of God.