Wahhabism in light of Shafi, Maliki, Hanafi schools of Sunni Islam

On the difference between Imam Malik and Imam Shafi on Bidah

The classification of Bidah (i.e., innovation in religion) into praiseworthy & blameworthy or into obligatory, recommended, permissible, disliked, forbidden and such are well established by majority of scholars among all four schools of Sunni Islam. The scholars have agreed that not all innovation is evil and a matter not existing during the time of the Salaf does not necessarily imply the rejection of the matter. Instead they have explained that if an innovated matter has a basis in Quran, Sunnah, Ijma, Qiyas or other sources of evidences in the Sharia either in general or detail, than such a matter is not necessarily rejected. What follows then is an ijthihad done by scholars in categorizing an innovated matter into one of these classifications of Bidah and as a result it is natural that there exist at times difference of opinion among mujtahid scholars within a school as well as across the schools, in their conclusions because of the difference in weighing of evidence, applying the principles of fiqh and so forth.

However there is also another sub category whereby an innovated matter has no clear basis in the sharia nor rejected by the Sharia or a case where an innovated matter has a basis in Sharia however it was not acted upon by the Salaf or that that no specific form is known from the Salaf with regards to it. The Maliki scholar Shaykh Uthman Don Fodio in his book “Ihya’u as-Sunna wa Ikhmad al-Bid`a” goes onto mention the existence of a difference between Imam Malik and Imam Shafi on this, may Allah be pleased with them all.

Similarly elsewhere the Imam says,

Quotes taken from the book Ihya’u as-Sunna wa Ikhmad al-Bid`a : http://siiasi.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Ihyas-Sunna_wa_Ikhmadl-Bida_The_Revival.pdf

When is Bidah disapproved: Imam Uthman Ibn Fodio (d. 1817)

microsoft-word-ihya-s-sunna-wa-ikhmad-l-bida-disapproval-of-bidah

From the book: Ihya’u as-Sunna wa Ikhmad al-Bid`a (The Revival of the Sunna and Destruction of Innovation) of the great Maliki jurist, Qadiri sufi, mujahid, Imam & the reviver of Islam, Shaykh Uthman Ibn Fodio (rah).

Source link: http://siiasi.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Ihyas-Sunna_wa_Ikhmadl-Bida_The_Revival.pdf

Reciting poetry in the Masjid

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One of the prominent practices among Muslim communities during the month of Rabi-ul Awwal and the day of birth of our Prophet ﷺ (as well as otherwise) is to hold gathering in which poetry is recited in praise of the Prophet ﷺ. One of the clear evidence for this as cited by scholars is the practice of the Sahabi Hassan Bin Thabit رضى الله عنه who was known to be skilled in reciting poetry in defense and praise of the Prophet ﷺ.

Imam Muslim in his Sahih, mentioned a number of hadiths under the header “The Virtues Of Hassan Bin Thabit رضى الله عنه”. The first two of the narrations are quoted below:

دَّثَنَا عَمْرٌو النَّاقِدُ، وَإِسْحَاقُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، وَابْنُ أَبِي عُمَرَ، كُلُّهُمْ عَنْ سُفْيَانَ، قَالَ عَمْرٌو حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ بْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ عُمَرَ، مَرَّ بِحَسَّانَ وَهُوَ يُنْشِدُ الشِّعْرَ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ فَلَحَظَ إِلَيْهِ فَقَالَ قَدْ كُنْتُ أُنْشِدُ وَفِيهِ مَنْ هُوَ خَيْرٌ مِنْكَ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ الْتَفَتَ إِلَى أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ فَقَالَ أَنْشُدُكَ اللَّهَ أَسَمِعْتَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏“‏ أَجِبْ عَنِّي اللَّهُمَّ أَيِّدْهُ بِرُوحِ الْقُدُسِ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ اللَّهُمَّ نَعَمْ ‏.‏

Abu Huraira reported that ‘Umar happened to pass by Hassan as he was reciting verses (i.e., poetry) in the mosque. He (Hadrat ‘Umar) looked towards him (meaningfully), whereupon he (Hassan) said: I used to recite (poetry) when one better than you (the Holy Prophet) had been present (here). He then looked towards Abu Huraira and said to him: I adjure you by Allah (to tell) if you had not heard Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying: (Hassan), give a reply on my behalf; Allah help him with Ruh-ul-Qudus (Gabriel). He (Abu Huraira) said: By Allah, it is so (i. e. the Prophet actually said these words).

حَدَّثَنَاهُ إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ رَافِعٍ، وَعَبْدُ بْنُ حُمَيْدٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّزَّاقِ، أَخْبَرَنَا مَعْمَرٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنِ ابْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، أَنَّ حَسَّانَ، قَالَ فِي حَلْقَةٍ فِيهِمْ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ أَنْشُدُكَ اللَّهَ يَا أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ أَسَمِعْتَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.‏ فَذَكَرَ مِثْلَهُ ‏.‏

Ibn Musayyib reported that Hassan said to a circle in which there was also Abu Huraira: Abu Huraira, I adjure you by Allah (to tell) whether you-had not heard Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) saying like this.

Imam Nawawi in his commentary to Sahih Muslim, comments on these narrations:

قوله : ( إن حسان أنشد الشعر في المسجد بإذن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ) فيه جواز إنشاد الشعر في المسجد إذا كان مباحا ، واستحبابه إذا كان في ممادح الإسلام وأهله ، أو في هجاء الكفار والتحريض على قتالهم ، أو تحقيرهم ، ونحو ذلك وهكذا كان شعر حسان . وفيه استحباب الدعاء لمن قال شعرا من هذا النوع . وفيه جواز الانتصار من الكفار ، ويجوز أيضا من غيرهم بشرطه . وروح القدس جبريل صلى الله عليه وسلم .

http://library.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?bk_no=53&ID=1158&idfrom=7370&idto=7381&bookid=53&startno=0

Imam Nawawi here says that it is permissible to recite poetry in the masjid, and mustahabb (recommended/virtuous deed) if the recitation is in praise of Islam and its people.
 The following are relevant points to be noted:
  • Poetry was read in the masjid during the presence & life of the Prophet ﷺ as well as after.
  • Poetry was read in presence of a circle/gathering (as mentioned in the second narration) which included the prominent companion Abu Hurayra رضى الله عنه.
  • This was not just a permissible practice but a sunnah & rewarding deed when done in praise and defense of Islam, the Prophet ﷺ and the people of Islam.
  • It is mustahabb/recommended to make dua for those who recite such poetry, as mentioned by Imam Nawawi above.
  • Prophet ﷺ actively encouraged Hassan Bin Thabit رضى الله عنه as well others from the companions to recite such poetry, as seen in another following narration from Sahih Muslim where the Prophet ﷺ sent for a number companions such Ibn Rawiha رضى الله عنه and Ka’b bin Malik رضى الله عنه to recite poetry in defense of Islam.
  • Prophet ﷺ prayed and informed Hassan Bin Thabit رضى الله عنه  that he was supported by Angel Jibril عليه السلام while in another narration that the Angel Jibril عليه السلام will continue to support him as long he continues to defend Allah and His Messenger.
  • Finally the Sharia has not limited this practice to any fixed form or fixed day and therefore does not prohibit such gathering on Rabi ul Awwal and on the day of the birth of our Prophet ﷺ.

Imam Ibn Hibban (d. 354): Allah is not in time or place

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Imam Abu Hatim Muhammed ibn Hibban (271-354H) was an early hadith scholar and a Shafi jurist. From among his teachers were hadith scholars Imam An-Nasai and Imam Ibn Khuzaimah. His famous work “Sahih Ibn Hibban” is said to be the most authentic collection of hadiths after Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim and Sahih Ibn Khuzaimah. In this work, Imam Ibn Hibban at times provides his commentary to the narrations, some of which are quoted below and roughly translated.

Allah is not in time or place

قَالَ أَبُو حَاتِمٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ: «وَهِمَ فِي هَذِهِ اللَّفْظَةِ حَمَّادُ بْنُ سَلَمَةَ مِنْ حَيْثُ فِي غَمَامٍ إِنَّمَا هُوَ فِي عَمَاءٍ، يُرِيدُ بِهِ أَنَّ الْخَلْقَ لَا يَعْرِفُونَ خَالِقَهُمْ مِنْ حَيْثُ هُمْ، إِذْ كَانَ وَلَا زَمَانَ وَلَا مَكَانَ، وَمَنْ لَمْ يُعْرَفْ لَهُ زَمَانٌ، وَلَا مَكَانٌ وَلَا شَيْءٌ مَعَهُ، لِأَنَّهُ خَالِقُهَا، كَانَ مَعْرِفَةُ الْخَلْقِ إِيَّاهُ كَأَنَّهُ كَانَ فِي عَمَاءٍ عَنْ عِلْمِ الْخَلْقِ، لَا أَنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ فِي عَمَاءٍ إِذْ هَذَا الْوَصْفُ شَبِيهٌ بِأَوْصَافِ الْمَخْلُوقِينَ»

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-1734/page-12267#page-12267

“….He means the creation does not know where the Creator is, as He was without time and without place, and one does know of time or place or anything with him….”

This is similar to what Imam Ibn Hibban has said in his book “Ath-thiqah” (Volume 1, page 1) :

الحمد لله الذي ليس له حد محدود فيحتوى, ولا له أجل معدود فيفنى, ولا يحيط به جوامع المكان, ولا يشتمل عليه تواتر الزمان

“Praise be to Allah, Who is free of limits … who is not situated by any of the places and who is not subject to the passage of time ”

Taken from: https://islamsunnite.wordpress.com/2011/07/01/le-hafidh-ibn-hibban-dit-que-allah-est-sans-endroit-et-quil-ne-depend-pas-du-temps/

Nuzul (lit. Descent) of Allah is not a movement from place to place

قَالَ أَبُو حَاتِمٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ: صِفَاتُ اللَّهِ جَلَّ وَعَلَا لَا تُكَيَّفُ، وَلَا تُقَاسُ إِلَى صِفَاتِ الْمَخْلُوقِينَ، فَكَمَا أَنَّ اللَّهَ جَلَّ وَعَلَا مُتَكَلِّمٌ مِنْ غَيْرِ آلَةٍ بَأَسْنَانٍ وَلَهَوَاتٍ وَلِسَانٍ وَشَفَةٍ كَالْمَخْلُوقِينَ، جَلَّ رَبُّنَا وَتَعَالَى عَنْ مِثْلِ هَذَا وَأَشْبَاهِهِ، وَلَمْ يَجُزْ أَنْ يُقَاسَ كَلَامُهُ إِلَى كَلَامِنَا، لِأَنَّ كَلَامَ الْمَخْلُوقِينَ لَا يُوجَدُ إِلَّا بِآلَاتٍ، وَاللَّهُ جَلَّ وَعَلَا يَتَكَلَّمُ كَمَا شَاءَ بِلَا آلَةٍ، كَذَلِكَ يَنْزِلُ بِلَا آلَةٍ، وَلَا تَحَرُّكٍ، وَلَا انْتِقَالٍ مِنْ مَكَانٍ إِلَى مَكَانٍ، وَكَذَلِكَ السَّمْعُ وَالْبَصَرُ، فَكَمَا لَمْ يَجُزْ أَنْ يُقَالَ: اللَّهُ يُبْصِرُ كَبَصَرِنَا بِالْأَشْفَارِ وَالْحَدَقِ وَالْبَيَاضِ، بَلْ يُبْصِرُ كَيْفَ يَشَاءُ بِلَا آلَةٍ، وَيَسْمَعُ مِنْ غَيْرِ أُذُنَيْنِ، وَسِمَاخَيْنِ، وَالْتِوَاءٍ، وَغَضَارِيفَ فِيهَا، بَلْ يَسْمَعُ كَيْفَ يَشَاءُ بِلَا آلَةٍ، وَكَذَلِكَ يَنْزِلُ كَيْفَ يَشَاءُ بِلَا آلَةٍ مِنْ غَيْرِ أَنْ يُقَاسَ نُزُولُهُ إِلَى نُزُولِ الْمَخْلُوقِينَ، كَمَا يُكَيَّفُ نُزُولُهُمْ، جَلَّ رَبُّنَا وَتَقَدَّسَ مِنْ أَنْ تُشَبَّهَ صِفَاتُهُ بِشَيْءٍ مِنْ صِفَاتِ الْمَخْلُوقِينَ

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-1734/page-1830

In commentary to the hadith of the Nuzul of Allah during the Night, he says:

“….the attribute of Allah cannot be likened nor measured with the attributes of creation, just as Allah is (attributed to be a) Speaker without (need for) instruments, tongue, teeth, lip like creatures do …..It is not permissible to liken the Speech of Allah with speech of creation as it (speech of creation) cannot exist except as instruments, and Allah Almighty Speaks as He Wills without instruments, similarly the Descent is without instruments, nor movements, nor transition from place to place, similar to this is the Hearing and Seeing, ….He Sees as He Wills without instruments and Hears without Ears…and instead Hears as He Wills without instruments, (similarity) He descends as He Wills without instruments,  It is not to be likened to the descent of creatures….”

Tawil of  Saq (lit. Shin) to mean Severity

قَالَ أَبُو حَاتِمٍ : السَّاقُ الشِّدَّةُ

http://hadithportal.com/h442612

On the narration which mentions of “Saq” used by Salafiyya to attribute Allah with legs, Imam Ibn Hibban interprets it to means “severity”. This tawil is no different to tawil by Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Qatada, Ibn Qutaybah and others from the Salaf (may Allah be pleased with them), as related by Imam Tabari and others in commentary to verse of Quran 68:42. Imam Ahmed Bin Hanbal also narrated the tawil of Ibn Abbas رضي الله عنه‎‎:

اعلم أنني سلكت في تفسير هذا الحرف سبيلَ كثير من [علماء السنة]، وسوّغ ذلك: أن ابن عباس والحسن في جماعة من التابعين فَسَّرُوه بهذا التفسير، ونقله الإمام أحمد ورواه.
قال الزجاج في معانيه: أخبرنا عبدالله بن أحمد بن محمد بن حنبل قال: حدثنا أبي، أخبرنا محمد بن جعفر، عن شعبة، عن مغيرة، عن إبراهيم قال: قال ابن عباس في قوله: { يَوْمَ يُكْشَفُ عَن سَاقٍ }: الأمر الشديد.

http://altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=111&tSoraNo=68&tAyahNo=42&tDisplay=yes&Page=1&Size=1&LanguageId=1

On the hadith “Allah puts His Qadam (lit. Foot) in Hell”

With regards to the authentic hadith that says:
“Hell would continue to say: Is there anything more, until Allah, the Exalted and High, would place His foot therein and that would say: Enough, Enough”
[In another narration it is said: “And as regards the Hell it would not be full until Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, places His foot therein, and it would say: Enough, enough, enough, and it would be then full” which if taken in bare literal terms would mean hell would fill up with the “foot” of Allah]
Imam Ibn Hibban explains that,
قَالَ أَبُو حَاتِمٍ: هَذَا الْخَبَرُ مِنَ الْأَخْبَارِ الَّتِي أُطْلِقَتْ بِتَمْثِيلِ الْمُجَاوَرَةِ، وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يُلْقَى فِي النَّارِ مِنَ الْأُمَمِ وَالْأَمْكِنَةِ الَّتِي عُصِيَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهَا، فَلَا تَزَالُ تَسْتَزِيدُ حَتَّى يَضَعَ الرَّبُّ جَلَّ وَعَلَا مَوْضِعًا مِنَ الْكُفَّارِ وَالْأَمْكِنَةِ فِي النَّارِ، فَتَمْتَلِئُ فَتَقُولُ: قَطْ قَطْ، تُرِيدُ: حَسْبِي حَسْبِي، لِأَنَّ الْعَرَبَ تُطْلِقُ فِي لُغَتِهَا اسْمَ الْقَدَمِ عَلَى الْمَوْضِعِ، قَالَ اللَّهُ جَلَّ وَعَلَا: {لَهُمْ قَدَمُ صِدْقٍ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ} [يونس: 2]، يُرِيدُ: مَوْضِعَ صِدْقٍ، لَا أَنَّ اللَّهَ جَلَّ وَعَلَا يَضَعُ قَدَمَهُ فِي النَّارِ، جَلَّ رَبُّنَا وَتَعَالَى عَنْ مِثْلِ هَذَا وَأَشْبَاهِهِ
in Arab linguistic usage foot is used to mean position/locus,  like in the verse {Warn mankind and bring unto those who believe the good tidings that they have a sure footing with their Lord} [Quran 10:2] where “sure footing” here according to him means sure position, and Imam Ibn Hibban says it (the narration) does not  mean that Allah will place His “Qadam” (literally foot) in fire.
I.e. just as the Quranic verse does not mean the believers will have their literal foot with Allah and instead the foot is metaphor to a position, or a reward, or reference to the Prophet (saw) as mentioned in tafsirs of this verse; similarly this hadith does not mean a literal “foot” is placed in hell.

 

On the hadith “Allah created Adam in his image”

He says that “his image” cannot be referring to Allah as it Kufr and Allah has no likeness, and instead it means image of Adam عليه السلام himself, in the sense that image of Adam عليه السلام was created by Allah directly such as his appearance and height, while others in creation are not directly created but go through means and phases such as meeting of male & female and physical phases in the womb.

قَالَ أَبُو حَاتِمٍ: «هَذَا الْخَبَرُ تَعَلَّقَ بِهِ مَنْ لَمْ يُحْكِمُ صِنَاعَةَ الْعِلْمِ وَأَخَذَ يُشَنِّعُ عَلَى أَهْلِ الْحَدِيثِ الَّذِينَ يَنْتَحِلُونَ السُّنَنَ، وَيَذُبُّونَ عَنْهَا، وَيَقْمَعُونَ مَنْ خَالَفَهَا بِأَنْ قَالَ: لَيْسَتْ تَخْلُو هَذِهِ الْهَاءُ مِنْ أَنْ تُنْسَبَ إِلَى اللَّهِ أَوْ إِلَى آدَمَ، فَإِنْ نُسِبَتْ إِلَى اللَّهِ كَانَ ذَلِكَ كُفْرًا، إِذْ {لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ} [الشورى: 11]، وَإِنْ نُسِبَتْ إِلَى آدَمَ تَعَرَّى الْخَبَرُ عَنِ الْفَائِدَةِ، لِأَنَّهُ لَا شَكَّ أَنَّ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خُلِقَ عَلَى صُورَتِهِ لَا عَلَى صُورَةِ غَيْرِهِ، وَلَوْ تَمَلَّقَ قَائِلُ هَذَا إِلَى بَارِئِهِ فِي الْخَلْوَةِ، وَسَأَلَهُ التَّوْفِيقَ لِإِصَابَةِ الْحَقِّ وَالْهِدَايَةِ لِلطَّرِيقِ الْمُسْتَقِيمِ فِي لُزُومِ سُنَنِ الْمُصْطَفَى صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَكَانَ أَوْلَى بِهِ مِنَ الْقَدْحِ فِي مُنْتَحِلِي السُّنَنِ بِمَا يَجْهَلُ مَعْنَاهُ، وَلَيْسَ جَهْلُ الْإِنْسَانِ بِالشَّيْءِ دَالًا عَلَى نَفْيِ الْحَقِّ عَنْهُ لِجَهْلِهِ بِهِ.
وَنَحْنُ نَقُولُ: إِنَّ أَخْبَارَ الْمُصْطَفَى صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِذَا صَحَّتْ مِنْ جِهَةِ النَّقْلِ لَا تَتَضَادَّ، وَلَا تَتَهَاتَرُ، وَلَا تَنْسَخُ الْقُرْآنَ بَلْ لِكُلِّ خَبَرٍ مَعْنًى مَعْلُومٌ يُعْلَمُ، وَفَصْلٌ صَحِيحٌ يُعْقَلُ، يَعْقِلُهُ الْعَالِمُونَ.
فَمَعْنَى الْخَبَرِ عِنْدَنَا بِقَوْلِهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: » خَلَقَ اللَّهُ آدَمَ عَلَى صُورَتِهِ «: إِبَانَةُ فَضْلِ آدَمَ عَلَى سَائِرِ الْخَلْقِ، وَالْهَاءُ رَاجِعَةٌ إِلَى آدَمَ، وَالْفَائِدَةُ مِنْ رُجُوعِ الْهَاءِ إِلَى آدَمَ دُونَ إِضَافَتِهَا إِلَى الْبَارِئِ جَلَّ وَعَلَا – جَلَّ رَبُّنَا وَتَعَالَى عَنْ أَنْ يُشَبَّهُ بِشَيْءٍ مِنَ الْمَخْلُوقِينَ – أَنَّهُ جَلَّ وَعَلَا جَعَلَ سَبَبَ الْخَلْقِ الَّذِي هُوَ الْمُتَحَرِّكُ النَّامِي بِذَاتِهِ اجْتِمَاعَ الذَّكَرِ وَالْأُنْثَى، ثُمَّ زَوَالَ الْمَاءِ عَنْ قَرَارِ الذَّكَرِ إِلَى رَحِمِ الْأُنْثَى، ثُمَّ تَغَيُّرَ ذَلِكَ إِلَى الْعَلَقَةِ بَعْدَ مُدَّةٍ، ثُمَّ إِلَى الْمُضْغَةِ، ثُمَّ إِلَى الصُّورَةِ، ثُمَّ إِلَى الْوَقْتِ الْمَمْدُودِ فِيهِ، ثُمَّ الْخُرُوجِ مِنْ قَرَارِهِ، ثُمَّ الرَّضَاعِ، ثُمَّ الْفِطَامِ، ثُمَّ الْمَرَاتِبِ الْأُخَرِ عَلَى حَسَبِ مَا ذَكَرْنَا إِلَى حُلُولِ الْمَنِيَّةِ بِهِ.
هَذَا وَصْفُ الْمُتَحَرِّكِ النَّامِي بِذَاتِهِ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ وَخَلْقِ اللَّهِ جَلَّ وَعَلَّا آدَمَ عَلَى صُورَتِهِ الَّتِي خَلْقَهُ عَلَيْهَا، وَطُولُهُ سِتُّونَ ذِرَاعًا مِنْ غَيْرِ أَنْ تَكُونَ تَقْدُمُهُ اجْتِمَاعُ الذَّكَرِ وَالْأُنْثَى، أَوْ زَوَالُ الْمَاءِ، أَوْ قَرَارُهُ، أَوْ تَغْيِيرُ الْمَاءِ عَلَقَةً أَوْ مُضْغَةً، أَوْ تَجْسِيمُهُ بَعْدَهُ، فَأَبَانَ اللَّهُ بِهَذَا فَضْلَهُ عَلَى سَائِرِ مَنْ ذَكَرْنَا مِنْ خَلْقِهِ، بِأَنَّهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ نُطْفَةً فَعَلَقَةً، وَلَا عَلَقَةً فَمُضْغَةً، وَلَا مُضْغَةً فَرَضِيعًا، وَلَا رَضِيعًا فَفَطِيمًا، وَلَا فَطِيمًا فَشَابًّا كَمَا كَانَتْ هَذِهِ حَالَةُ غَيْرِهِ ضِدَّ قَوْلِ مَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّ أَصْحَابَ الْحَدِيثِ حَشْوِيَّةٌ يَرْوُونَ مَا لَا يَعْقِلُونَ وَيَحْتَجُّونَ بِمَا لَا يَدْرُونَ»

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-1734#page-12308

Allah Sees not with eyes and Hears not with ears

In a hadith where the Prophet  places his finger over the ear and eyes while reciting the verse {Allah is ever Hearing and Seeing}, he comments on it that it does not mean Allah Sees with eyes or Hears with ears, and instead Allah Sees and Hears without instruments as He Wills.

قَالَ أَبُو حَاتِمٍ: أَرَادَ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِوَضْعِهِ أُصْبُعَهُ عَلَى أُذُنِهِ وَعَيْنِهِ تَعْرِيفَ النَّاسِ أَنَّ اللَّهَ جَلَّ وَعَلَا لَا يَسْمَعُ بِالْأُذُنِ الَّتِي لَهَا سِمَاخٌ وَالْتِوَاءٌ، وَلَا يُبْصِرُ بِالْعَيْنِ الَّتِي لَهَا أَشْفَارٌ وَحَدَقٌ وَبَيَاضٌ، جَلَّ رَبُّنَا وَتَعَالَى عَنْ أَنْ يُشَبَّهَ بِخَلْقِهِ فِي شَيْءٍ مِنَ الْأَشْيَاءِ، بَلْ يَسْمَعُ وَيُبْصِرُ بِلَا آلَةٍ كَيْفَ يَشَاءُ

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-1734/page-521#page-518

On the hadith “It (date) is nurtured in the hand of Ar-Rahman”

Imam Ibn Hibban under the following header,

ذِكْرُ الْخَبَرِ الدَّالِّ عَلَى أَنَّ هَذِهِ الْأَخْبَارَ أُطْلِقَتْ بِأَلْفَاظِ التَّمْثِيلِ وَالتَّشْبِيهِ عَلَى حَسَبِ مَا يَتَعَارَفُهُ النَّاسُ بَيْنَهُمْ، دُونَ كَيْفِيَّتِهَا أَوْ وُجُودِ حَقَائِقِهَا
“….reports …. with wording that are comparison and metaphorical…without howness and presence of reality”
mentions the narration of Abu Hurairah narrating that: the Messenger of Allah  said: “None gives charity from Tayyib – and Allah does not accept but Tayyib – but that Ar-Rahman accepts it with His Right (Hand). Even if it is a date, it is nurtured in the Hand of Ar-Rahman until it is greater than a mountain, just as one of you nurtures his foal or young camel.”

After which he says,

 قَالَ أَبُو حَاتِمٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ: قَوْلُهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «إِلَّا كَأَنَّمَا يَضَعُهَا فِي يَدِ الرَّحْمَنِ» يُبَيِّنُ لَكَ أَنَّ هَذِهِ الْأَخْبَارَ أُطْلِقَتْ بِأَلْفَاظِ التَّمْثِيلِ دُونَ وُجُودِ حَقَائِقِهَا، أَوِ الْوُقُوفِ عَلَى كَيْفِيَّتِهَا، إِذْ لَمْ يَتَهَيَّأْ مَعْرِفَةُ الْمُخَاطَبِ بِهَذِهِ الْأَشْيَاءِ إِلَّا بِالْأَلْفَاظِ الَّتِي أُطْلِقَتْ بِهَا

http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-1734/page-527

that the saying  “it is nurtured in the Hand of Ar-Rahman” shows the wording of report is a comparison without presence of reality.

 

Sunni Scholars gather and reaffirm who are Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamah

Senior Muslim Scholars from around the world met in Grozny, Chechnya for 3 days. Final Conference Statement was issued in which they reaffirmed “Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamah” or “Sunnis” are the Asharis and Maturidis in Belief, people of Four schools in Jurisprudence, and the people of Tassawuf, purification, morals on the way of Imam Junaid al Baghdadi and pursue on the methodology of the Guided Imams.

Full Statement in Arabic here: http://www.naseemalsham.com/ar/Pages.php?page=readviestor&pg_id=55821&page1=1

 

 

Add 03/09/2016:

The conference and final statement as expected brought flak from certain crowds, namely Salafi, Ikhwani, Hizb ut Tahrir and so on.

Islam of Ikhwani, Hizb ut-Tahrir being about politics, their complains were directed at the venue and also that it does not speak about Syria. Which is silly as most of them do not recognize any country in the Muslim or Non-Muslim world to begin with (except maybe one where the government is hand in glove with them) and consider them all tyrants, taghut or crusaders, so no matter which venue they will have something to complain about. Moreover the subject of the conference was not about Syria that they are supposed to talk about Syria. Its one of those arguments where if a scholar gives a lesson on Wudu, a person comes along proudly denouncing it with “why isn’t he speaking about the oppression of Muslims”. 

Conference in Grozny was organized in tandem with ulema of Chechenya. This is a place with rich and long tradition of Ahlu Sunnah. This is also the place where Sunni ulema initiated Jihad against Russian occupation but after the jihad was hijacked and distorted by the Wahhabiya/Khawarij, they had to take a different approach to the conflict. 52 or more scholars of Ahlus Sunnah were killed by the Khawarij there. And hence the conference is also relevant to the Muslims of Chechnya in conveying who are Ahlus Sunnah and being firm on this path, as well as ofcourse in dealing with larger problem of takfiris who have hijacked Sunni Islam and Jihad all over the world.

The Najd based Wahhabism in addition to this also complain that “Ahlu Hadith” were not included as Ahlu Sunnah Wal Jamah. Now this “Ahlu Hadith” is not a clear defined group or school in the same way of Asharis or Maturidis. Ahlu Hadith is a terminology used by certain scholars more like a synonym to Ahlu Sunnah. Are we to say that the scholars of Asharis and Maturidis are not people of hadith when giants of hadith scholars come from them ? This is similar to usage of “Salaf” which will be used in certain context to identify but cannot be used as though Asharis and Maturidis are different from the Salaf. If the classification is to be made based on usage of Ilm al-Kalam, then this is not a different school of belief but only a method of defending and exposition of the belief of Ahlu Sunnah. There are scholars who are specialist in Ilm al Kalam within the school of Asharis/Maturidis while others being a specialist in hadith, tafsir,  usool and so on. Moreover, even scholars that Salafiyya rely on like Qadi Abu Yala and Ibn Taymiyya would be considered a mutakkalim because of their heavy use of Kalam. In reality, Ashari/Maturidis are the inheritors of the school of righteous Salaf & Ahlu hadith, and the differences with some of the righteous Hanbali scholars in Aqeeda are minor similar to differences between Imam al-Bukhari (rah.) and Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal (rah.) and such minor differences will exist even within Asharis and Maturidi scholars as much as differences exist within Hanabli scholars themselves. The creed of Ashari and Maturidi school encompasses creed of all righteous Salaf and Imams of Ahlus Sunnah including Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal and the Hanbalis. This is because when the Muatazilite and Karramites were in power, it was the Asharis and Maturidis that came along and defended the creed of Salaf & Ahlu Hadith and emerged victorious and hence the Ahlu Sunnah schools came to be represented by them and carried forward by them differentiating them from the others. This is not to say that usage of “Ahlu Hadith” is wrong if used by any scholar but that many Imams of the past defined Ahlu Sunnah as Ashari and Maturidi schools in Aqeeda and this is the usage continued in this conference and there is nothing wrong with such usage.

As for the importance of clarifying who are the Sunnis, its because of the fact that majority of Sunni Muslim world have always been Asharis/Maturids in creed, and followed one of the four schools in Fiqh and adopted schools of Tassawuf. It has been the schools adopted by nearly all the Muslim caliphates of the past, the schools of all the major Islamic institutions from Far East to Far West in past and present. Despite this being the fact, we the majority are being classed as “Sufis” as though it is an offshoot of Sunnism while in reality we are the first who should be classified as Sunnis. And moreover we today have groups who do not follow the schools of Ahlus Sunnah being called as “Sunnis” like the la madhabis or dhahiris in fiqh, or anthropomorphists or many takfiri creeds or those waging war against tassawuf, that have risen in our time who do not follow and are deviated from the Aqeeda, Fiqh and methodology of Ahlu Sunnah.  As a result we see takfiris as deviant as Daesh being labelled as “Sunni Jihadis” and it is pertinent in this context that Sunnis reclaim what is Sunnism and that our difference with takfiris are not reduced to legality of burning prisoners of war, but start from the foundations of Aqeeda & Jurisprudence. In the backdrop of all these fitna are also Libertine or Muatazili oriented groups adding fitna with their own innovations whether in Aqeeda or Fiqh or spirituality. Like fitnas of the past we are likely to see more deviant sects emerge in these times divergent from Ahlu Sunnah. The conference has shed focus on a foundational aspect of Sunnis with input from several senior scholars, uniting on this subject, cooperating between them on this basis and continue to be a subject of focus and perspective tomorrow. Let those who disagree with the definition gather their own whether Ikhwani, Takfiri, Madhkali, La-Madhabi, Hizb Ut Tahrir, Qaeda or whoever and release their own statement. That statement or their inability to do so will speak for itself.

Add 15/09/2016:

fatwas-of-al-lajnah-on-twitter-shaykh-saalih-al-fawzaan-asharee-s-say-we-re-ahlus-sunnah-but-that-s-not-true-rather-they-were-never-upon-the-manhaj-of-ahlus-sunnah

In apparent response to conference, a senior Salafi Najdi scholar and member of their biggest fatwa body and recognized by all Salafis, comes out to lay bare his belief that Asharis are not Ahlus Sunnah. In other words, the vast majority of the Ummah and Imams of Sunni Islam are not Ahlus Sunnah. Let those crying crocodile tears of “sectarianism” about this conference, see where sectarianism really emerges from.

Ibn Juzayy al-Kalbi (d. 741H) on Tawhid

68Al-Ahad_copy

Ibn Juzayy al-Kalbi al-Gharnaouti, in his commentary work on the Quran “Tasheel li Ulum al-Tanzeel”, comments on the verse:

And your god is one God. There is no god except Him, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful. [2:163]

{ وَإِلَـٰهُكُمْ إِلَـٰهٌ وَٰحِدٌ } الواحد له ثلاثة معان كلها صحيحة في حق الله تعالى: أحدها: أنه لا ثاني له فهو نفي للعدد، والآخر: أنه لا شريك له، والثالث: أنه لا يتبعض ولا ينقسم، وقد فسر المراد به هنا في قوله؛ لا إلٰه إلاّ هو.

واعلم أن توحيد الخلق لله تعالى على ثلاث درجات الأولى: توحيد عامة المسلمين وهو الذي يعصم النفس من الهلك في الدنيا، وينجي من الخلود في النار في الآخرة، وهو نفي الشركاء والأنداد، والصاحبة والأولاد، والأشباه والأضداد.

الدرجة الثانية: توحيد الخاصة، وهو أن يرى الأفعال كلها صادرة من الله وحده ويشاهد ذلك بطريق المكاشفة لا بطريق الاستدلال الحاصل لكل مؤمن، وإنما مقام الخاص في التوحيد يغني في القلب بعلم ضروري لا يحتاج إلى دليل، وثمرة هذا العلم الانقطاع إلى الله والتوكل عليه وحده واطراح جميع الخلق، فلا يرجو إلا الله، ولا يخاف أحداً سواه إذ ليس يرى فاعلاً إلاّ إياه ويرى جميع الخلق في قبضة القهر ليس بيدهم شيء من الأمر، فيطرح الأسباب وينبذ الأرباب،

والدرجة الثالثة: ألا يرى في الوجود إلا الله وحده فيغيب عن النظر إلى المخلوقات، حتى كأنها عنده معدومة. وهذا الذي تسميه الصوفية مقام الفناء بمعنى الغيبة عن الخلق حتى أنه قد يفنى عن نفسه، وعن توحيده: أي يغيب عن ذلك باستغراقه في مشاهدة الله.

Source

Rough Translation:

{And your god is one God}  Wahid (i.e., “one”), has three meanings all of which are correct in right of Allah Almighty: First: That He is not a second, He denied the number; Second: That He does not have a partner; and third: That He is not distributed nor divided, (which is) the interpretation intended here by the saying {There is no god except Him}.

And know that Tawhid has three stations, First: Tawhid of the generality of Muslims, it will protect him in this created world, and save him from eternity in the Hell fire in the next life. He denies Him a partner or an equal, an associate or a child, likeness or an opposite.

The second station: Tawhid of the special/distinguished, He believes that all his actions are issued from Allah alone and witness it by way of disclosure and not by way of reasoning (as done) by all believers,  but rather this special station of Tawhid enriches the heart with the necessary knowledge without the need for proof. The fruit of this knowledge is the dedication to Allah and trust in Him alone and discarding all of creation, having no hopes or requests but from Allah, and fearing none else (but Him), he would see that nothing can cause effect but by Him, and sees all of creation in the grip of the Subduer, not in his (own) hands is any command over matters, he discards the (correlative natural) causes and discards (false) lords.

The third station: He does not see anything in existence but Allah alone, the creation is hidden from his sight until like non-existent. This is what the Sufis call the station of Fana, meaning he stays away (hides) from creation until he annihilates his self, and (hence) tawhid: to be concealed by immersing himself in the Sight of God.